Handbook of deposition technologies for films and coatings: science, applications and technology (Burlington; Oxford, 2010). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаHandbook of deposition technologies for films and coatings: science, applications and technology / ed. by P.M.Martin. - 3rd ed. - Burlington; Oxford: William Andrew / Elsevier, 2010. - xviii, 912 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.902-912. - ISBN 978-0-8155-2031-3
 

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface to the Third Edition ................................... xi
List of Abbreviations ........................................ xiii

Chapter 1  Deposition Technologies: An Overview ................. 1
1.1  The Market ................................................. 1
1.2  Introduction ............................................... 3
1.3  Aim and Scope .............................................. 5
1.4  Definitions and Concepts ................................... 6
1.5  Physical Vapor Deposition Process Terminology .............. 8
1.6  Classification of Coating Processes ....................... 10
1.7  New Deposition Technologies ............................... 12
1.8  Microstructure and Properties ............................. 13
1.9  Unique Features of Deposited Materials and Gaps in
     Understanding ............................................. 14
1.10 Current Applications ...................................... 15
1.11 'Frontier Areas' for Applications of the Products of
     Deposition Technology ..................................... 19
1.12 Summary ................................................... 23
Appendix 1.1 Deposition Process Definitions .................... 23
References ..................................................... 30

Chapter 2  Plasmas in Deposition Processes ..................... 32
2.1  Introduction .............................................. 33
2.2  Particle Collisions, Energy, and Motion ................... 34
2.3  Plasma Parameters and Collective Behavior ................. 47
2.4  Discharge Plasmas ......................................... 55
2.5  Gas-Phase Plasma Reactions ................................ 66
2.6  Plasma-Surface Interactions ............................... 73
2.7  An Example: Magnetron Discharge for Deposition ............ 83
2.8  Summary ................................................... 86
Appendix 2.1 ................................................... 87
Acknowledgements ............................................... 88
References ..................................................... 88

Chapter 3  Surface Preparation for Film and Coating
           Deposition Processes ................................ 93
3.1  Introduction .............................................. 93
3.2  External Cleaning ......................................... 95
3.3  Evaluating and Monitoring of Cleaning .................... 117
3.4  Recontamination in the Ambient Environment ............... 121
3.5  In Situ Cleaning ......................................... 124
3.6  Recontamination in the Deposition System ................. 129
3.7  Some Surface Modification Processes ...................... 131
References .................................................... 133

Chapter 4  Evaporation: Processes, Bulk Microstructures,
           and Mechanical Properties .......................... 135
4.1  Introduction ............................................. 136
4.2  Scope .................................................... 138
4.3  PVD Processes ............................................ 138
4.4  Theory and Mechanisms .................................... 151
4.5  Evaporation Process and Apparatus ........................ 155
4.6  Evaporation Sources ...................................... 157
4.7  Deposition Rate Monitors and Process Control ............. 177
4.8  Deposition of Various Materials .......................... 182
4.9  Microstructure of PVD Condensates ........................ 208
4.10 Physical Properties of Thin Films ........................ 228
4.11 Mechanical and Related Properties ........................ 228
References .................................................... 246
Further Reading ............................................... 252

Chapter 5: Sputter Deposition Processes ....................... 253
Summary ....................................................... 253
5.1  Introduction: How Popular is Sputter Deposition? ......... 254
5.2  What is Sputtering? ...................................... 255
5.3  How are the Energetic Particles Generated? ............... 261
5.4  Efficient Trapping of Electrons Leads to Magnetron
     Sputter Deposition ....................................... 267
5.5  Reactive Magnetron Sputter Deposition .................... 280
5.6  Moving Toward the Substrate .............................. 287
5.7  Sputter-Deposited Thin Films: Morphology and
     Microstructure ........................................... 290
5.8  Conclusions .............................................. 294
References .................................................... 295

Chapter 6: Ion Plating ........................................ 297
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 297
6.2  Bombardment: Surface and Near-Surface Effects ............ 299
6.3  Bombardment: Effects on Adhesion, Film Growth, and
     Properties of the Deposited Material ..................... 300
6.4  Sources of Depositing Material ........................... 303
6.5  Sources of Bombarding Particles .......................... 305
6.6  Substrate Potential ...................................... 306
6.7  Some Applications of Ion Plating ......................... 310
References .................................................... 310

Chapter 7  Chemical Vapor Deposition .......................... 314
1.1  Introduction ............................................. 314
7.1  Important Reaction Zones in CVD .......................... 316
7.2  Design of CVD Experiments ................................ 317
7.3  Gas Row Dynamics ......................................... 330
7.4  Rate-Limiting Steps During CVD ........................... 339
7.5  Reaction Mechanisms ...................................... 345
7.6  Nucleation ............................................... 347
7.7  Surface Morphology and Microstructure of CVD Materials ... 351
7.8  Selective Deposition ..................................... 352
7.9  Selected Applications of the CVD Technique ............... 360
7.10 Outlook .................................................. 361
References .................................................... 361

Chapter 8  Atomic Layer Deposition ............................ 364
8.1  Introduction and Background .............................. 364
8.2  Principle of Atomic Layer Deposition ..................... 365
8.3  Advantages of Atomic Layer Deposition .................... 366
8.4  Atomic Layer Deposition Precursors, Processes, and
     Materials ................................................ 375
8.5  Applications ............................................. 381
8.6  Summary .................................................. 388
Acknowledgments ............................................... 388
References .................................................... 388

Chapter 9  Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of
           Functional Coatings ................................ 392
Summary ....................................................... 393
9.1  Introduction ............................................. 393
9.2  Processes in PECVD ....................................... 399
9.3  PECVD Reactors and Deposition Concepts ................... 402
9.4  Process Diagnostics and Monitoring ....................... 406
9.5  PECVD Materials: Effect of Surface Processes on the
     Microstructure and Properties ............................ 414
9.6  Functional Characteristics and Applications of PECVD
     Coatings ................................................. 436
9.7  Future and Perspectives .................................. 457
References .................................................... 458

Chapter 10 Unfiltered and Filtered Cathodic Arc Deposition .... 466
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 467
10.2 Cathodic Arc Plasma Generation ........................... 468
10.3 Arc Plasma Sources ....................................... 489
10.4 Macroparticles and Macroparticle Control ................. 493
10.5 Energetic Deposition ..................................... 501
10.6 Deposition of Coatings Using Unfiltered Cathodic Arc
     Plasma ................................................... 508
10.7 Deposition of Coatings Using Filtered Cathodic Arc
     Plasmas .................................................. 514
References .................................................... 519

Chapter 11 Vacuum Polymer Deposition .......................... 532
11.1 Introduction ............................................. 532
11.2 Polymer Deposition Process ............................... 534
11.3 Plasma Vacuum Polymer Deposition and Liquid Multilayer
     Processes ................................................ 540
11.4 Surface Morphology ....................................... 544
11.5 Multilayer Coatings ...................................... 546
References .................................................... 552

Chapter 12 Thin Film Nucleation, Growth, and Microstructural
           Evolution: An Atomic Scale View .................... 554
12.1 Introduction ............................................. 554
12.2 Nucleation and the Early Stages of Film Growth ........... 555
12.3 Three-Dimensional Nucleation and Growth .................. 569
12.4 Two-Dimensional Nucleation and Growth .................... 573
12.5 Stranski-Krastanow Nucleation and Growth ................. 583
12.6 Structural Evolution of Polycrystalline Films at the
     Nanoscale and Microscale ................................. 592
12.7 Conclusions .............................................. 616
Acknowledgements .............................................. 616
References .................................................... 616

Chapter 13 Glancing Angle Deposition .......................... 627
13.1 Introduction ............................................. 621
13.2 Theory, Structures and Apparatus ......................... 623
13.3 Advanced GLAD Processes .................................. 633
13.4 Properties of GLAD Thin Films ............................ 646
13.5 GLAD Applications ........................................ 660
13.6 Summary .................................................. 671
References .................................................... 672

Chapter 14: Nanocomposite Coatings for Severe Applications .... 679
14.1 Introduction ............................................. 679
14.2 Advances in Deposition Processes for Nanocomposite
     Coatings ................................................. 682
14.3 Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Nanocomposite
     Coatings ................................................. 689
14.4 Nanostructured and Composite Coatings for Tribological
     Applications ............................................. 693
14.5 Summary .................................................. 708
Acknowledgments ............................................... 709
References .................................................... 709

Chapter 15 Non-Elemental Characterization of Films and
           Coatings ........................................... 776
15.1 Introduction ............................................. 716
15.2 Characterization ......................................... 718
15.3 Film Formation ........................................... 723
15.4 Elemental and Structural Analysis ........................ 727
15.5 Some Property Measurements ............................... 728
15.6 Summary .................................................. 745
References .................................................... 745

Chapter 16: Characterization of Thin Films and Coatings ....... 749
16.1 Introduction ............................................. 749
16.2 Techniques Overview ...................................... 750
16.3 Incident Photon Methods .................................. 754
16.4 Incident Ion Methods ..................................... 786
16.5 Incident Electron Methods ................................ 816
16.6 Other Methods ............................................ 846
16.7 Summary .................................................. 856
Acknowledgments ............................................... 857
References .................................................... 857

Chapter 17 Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Sources and
           Processing ......................................... 865
17.1 Introduction ............................................. 865
17.2 Generation of Non-Equilibrium Plasma at Low and High
     Gas Pressures ............................................ 867
17.3 Examples of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Sources .............. 871
17.4 Characteristic Features and Typical Applications of
     Cold Atmospheric Plasma .................................. 873
17.5 General Conclusions ...................................... 878
Acknowledgments ............................................... 878
References .................................................... 879

Chapter 18 Jet Vapor Deposition ............................... 881
18.1 Introduction ............................................. 881
18.2 Principles of JVD Sources and Systems .................... 882
18.3 Relative Motion between Jet Sources and Substrates ....... 885
18.4 Three JVD Jet Sources .................................... 890
18.5 Generation and Deposition of Atoms and Clusters .......... 893
18.6 Application of JVD to Solder and Related Layers .......... 894
18.7 Summary .................................................. 897
Survey of Miscellaneous JVD Films and Applications ............ 898
References .................................................... 900

Index ......................................................... 902


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