Industrial applications of batteries: from cars to aerospace and energy storage (Amsterdam; Boston, 2007). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаIndustrial applications of batteries: from cars to aerospace and energy storage / ed. by M.Broussely, G.Pistoia. - Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier, 2007. - xxii, 770 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Sub. ind.: p.767-770. - ISBN 978-0-444-52160-6
 

Оглавление / Contents
 
Chapter 1 Nonaqueous Batteries Used in Industrial Applications
G. Pistoia
1.1   Introduction .............................................. 1
1.2   Primary Lithium Batteries ................................. 1
      1.2.1   Lithium/Sulrur Dioxide Batteries .................. 2
      1.2.2   Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Batteries ................ 5
      1.2.3   Lithium/Manganese Dioxide Batteries .............. 10
      1.2.4   Lithium/Carbon Monofluoride Batteries ............ 14
      1.2.5   Basic Parameters of Primary Li Batteries ......... 17
1.3   Rechargeable Batteries ................................... 17
      1.3.1   Lithium-Ion Batteries ............................ 17
      1.3.2   Batteries with a Lithium Electrode ............... 32
      1.3.3   Batteries with a Sodium Electrode ................ 41
      1.3.4   Basic Parameters of Secondary Nonaqueous
              Batteries ........................................ 49

Chapter 2 Aqueous Batteries Used in Industrial Applications
G. Pistoia
2.1   Introduction ............................................. 53
2.2   Lead/Acid Batteries ...................................... 53
      2.2.1   Electrodes ....................................... 53
      2.2.2   Grids ............................................ 55
      2.2.3   Plate Designs .................................... 55
      2.2.4   Electrolyte and Separators ....................... 57
      2.2.5   Charge/Discharge Reactions ....................... 57
      2.2.6   Design Features and Applications ................. 59
      2.2.7   Discharge Characteristics, Peukert Equation and
              Self-Discharge ................................... 63
      2.2.8   Charging Methods ................................. 65
2.3   Nickel/Cadmium Batteries ................................. 66
      2.3.1   Introduction ..................................... 66
      2.3.2   Types of Ni/Cd Batteries ......................... 66
      2.3.3   Charge/Discharge Reactions ....................... 69
      2.3.4   Discharge Characteristics, Memory Effect and
              Self-Discharge ................................... 71
      2.3.5   Charging Techniques .............................. 73
      2.3.6   Cycle Life ....................................... 74
      2.3.7   Applications ..................................... 76
2.4   Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries ........................... 77
      2.4.1   Materials and Electrode Reactions ................ 77
      2.4.2   Cell Construction and Performance ................ 80
      2.4.3   Charging the Ni/MH Battery........................ 83
      2.4.4   Cycle and Battery Life ........................... 86
      2.4.5   Applications ..................................... 86
2.5   Nickel/Hydrogen Batteries ................................ 89
2.6   Nickel/Iron Batteries .................................... 91
2.7   Nickel/Zinc Batteries .................................... 94
2.8   Zinc/Air Batteries ....................................... 97
2.9   Silver/Zinc Batteries ................................... 101
2.10  Zinc/Bromine Batteries .................................. 103
2.11  Vanadium Redox-Flow Batteries ........................... 106
2.12  Alkaline Primary Batteries .............................. 108
      2.12.1  Electrode Materials and Processes ............... 109
      2.12.2  Cell Construction ............................... 110
      2.12.3  Cell Performance and Applications ............... 111
2.13  Basic Parameters of Aqueous Secondary Batteries ......... 114

Chapter 3 Characterization of Batteries by Electrochemical
and Non-Electrochemical Techniques
D. Aurbach
3.1   Introduction ............................................ 119
3.2   Categories of Battery Materials ......................... 120
      3.2.1   Electrode Materials ............................. 120
      3.2.2   Electrolyte Systems ............................. 126
      3.2.3   Supporting Elements ............................. 127
3.3   Stages and Levels in Battery Characterization ........... 129
      3.3.1   Introduction .................................... 129
      3.3.2   Non-Destructive Studies of Full Cells ........... 129
      3.3.3   Post-Mortem Analysis of Full Cells .............. 129
      3.3.4   Half Cell Testing ............................... 130
      3.3.5   Solution Studies ................................ 130
      3.3.6   Electrode Studies - Bulk ........................ 131
3.4   A Brief Summary of Available Techniques Related to the
      Characterization of Batteries ........................... 132
      3.4.1   Glove Box Operations ............................ 132
      3.4.2   Bulk Analytical Tools ........................... 133
      3.4.3   Microscopy ...................................... 142
      3.4.4   Analysis of Surface Area by Gas Adsorption
              Processes ....................................... 146
      3.4.5   Thermal Analysis ................................ 147
      3.4.6   Surface Analysis ................................ 149
      3.4.7   Electrochemical Techniques ...................... 155
      3.4.8   Some Miscellaneous Techniques ................... 160
      3.4.9   In Situ Measurements ............................ 162
3.5   Typical Studies of Electrolyte Solutions and Solid
      Electrolytes ............................................ 167
      3.5.1   Evaluation of Solvents Parameters and
              Solutions Conductivity .......................... 167
      3.5.2   Electrochemical Windows of Electrolyte
              Solutions ....................................... 169
      3.5.3   Thermal Studies ................................. 171
3.6   Typical Studies of Electrodes and Electrode Materials ... 173
      3.6.1   The Scheme of Material Research ................. 173
      3.6.2   On the Electrochemical Characterization of
              Battery Electrodes .............................. 175
      3.6.3   On the Surface Characterization of Battery
              Electrodes ...................................... 184
3.7   Measurements of Complicated Batteries ................... 186
      3.7.1   Introduction - General Aspects .................. 186
      3.7.2   Examples of Standard Electrochemical
              Performance Tests for Commercial and Prototype
              Batteries ....................................... 187
      3.7.3   Measurements of Prototype Batteries, Impedance
              Measurements and the Study of Failure
              Mechanisms ...................................... 189
      3.7.4   Safety Features and Safety Tests ................ 192
3.8   Theoretical Aspects of Battery Characterization ......... 192
3.9   Concluding Remarks ...................................... 193

Chapter 4 Traction Batteries. EV and HEV
M. Broussely
4.1   Introduction ............................................ 203
4.2   The Different Types of Electric Vehicles ................ 204
      1.2.1   Electric Vehicles (EV) .......................... 204
      4.2.2   Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) .................. 208
4.3   Battery Technology for Traction ......................... 214
      4.3.1   Lead Acid ....................................... 215
      4.3.2   Nickel Cadmium .................................. 221
      4.3.3   Nickel Metal Hydride ............................ 228
      4.3.4   Lithium Ion ..................................... 242
      4.3.5   Lithium Polymer Batteries ....................... 262
      4.3.6   Sodium Nickel Chloride Battery .................. 265
4.4   Conclusion .............................................. 268

Chapter 5 Aerospace Applications. I. Satellites, Launchers,
Aircraft
К. Borthomieu and N. Thomas
5.1   Introduction ............................................ 273
5.2   Satellite Batteries ..................................... 273
      5.2.1   Satellite Requirements .......................... 274
      5.2.2   Satellite Battery Technologies .................. 280
5.3   Launcher Batteries ...................................... 308
      5.3.1   Rechargeable Batteries .......................... 309
      5.3.2   Primary Batteries ............................... 311
      5.3.3   Thermal Batteries ............................... 314
5.4   Aircraft Batteries ...................................... 314
      5.4.1   Batteries on Board Aircraft ..................... 314
      5.4.2   Role of the Main Aircraft Battery ............... 314
      5.4.3   Defining the Aircraft Environment ............... 315
      5.4.4   Current Technology .............................. 317
      5.4.5   Future Trends ................................... 323

Chapter 6 Aerospace Applications. II. Planetary Exploration
Missions (Orbiters, Landers, Rovers and Probes)
В.V. Ratnakumar and M.C. Smart
6.1   Introduction ............................................ 327
6.2   General Characteristics of Space Batteries .............. 328
6.3   Planetary and Space Exploration Missions ................ 329
      6.3.1   Robotic Space Exploration ....................... 330
      6.3.2   Human Exploration Missions ...................... 336
6.4   Past and Current Planetary Missions ..................... 339
      6.4.1   Lunar Missions (Apollo) ......................... 339
      6.4.2   Missions to Mars and Other Planets .............. 339
      6.4.3   Other Missions .................................. 354
6.5   Future Mars Missions .................................... 356
6.6   Aerospace Battery Technologies .......................... 357
      6.6.1   Primary Batteries ............................... 357
      6.6.2   Thermal Batteries ............................... 363
      6.6.3   Rechargeable Batteries .......................... 365
6.7   Unique Performance Attributes of Aerospace Li-Ion
      Batteries ............................................... 380
      6.7.1   Low Temperature Performance of Li-Ion
              Batteries ....................................... 381
      6.7.2   Radiation Tolerance ............................. 382
      6.7.3   Calendar Life ................................... 384
6.8   Lithium Batteries - Advanced Systems .................... 384
6.9   Concluding Remarks on Rechargeable Batteries ............ 387

Chapter 7 Stationary Applications. I. Lead-Acid Batteries
for Telecommunications and UPS
R. Wagner
7.1   Introduction ............................................ 395
7.2   The Lead-Acid Battery Technology ........................ 396
7.3   Large Batteries ......................................... 402
7.4   Improvement of Power Performance ........................ 409
7.5   Features of VRLA Technology ............................. 417
7.6   Gel Batteries ........................................... 430
7.7   AGM Batteries ........................................... 435
7.8   Future Trends ........................................... 442
7.9   Conclusions ............................................. 451

Chapter 8 Stationary Applications. II. Load Levelling
J. Kondoh
8.1   Signification of Stationary Application ................. 455
      8.1.1   Electric Power Systems .......................... 455
      8.1.2   Load Curves and Allocation for Power Plants ..... 456
      8.1.3   Load Levelling .................................. 457
      8.1.4   Load Frequency Control .......................... 458
      8.1.5   Other Applications .............................. 458
      8.1.6   Present Conditions .............................. 458
      8.1.7   Future Prospects ................................ 459
8.2   Sodium-Sulfur Battery Systems ........................... 460
      8.2.1   Battery Chemistry and Components ................ 460
      8.2.2   Practical System ................................ 462
      8.2.3   Capital Cost .................................... 468
8.3   Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Systems ..................... 468
      8.3.1   Battery Chemistry and Components ................ 468
      8.3.2   Practical System ................................ 470
8.4   Other Secondary Battery Systems ......................... 475
      8.4.1   Lead-Acid Battery Systems ....................... 475
      8.4.2   Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Systems ............ 475
      8.4.3   Lithium-Ion Battery Systems ..................... 477
8.5   Other Electric Energy Storage Systems ................... 478
      8.5.1   Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Systems ..... 479
      8.5.2   Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems ........... 479
      8.5.3   Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage
              Systems ......................................... 482
      8.5.4   Electric Double Layer Capacitors ................ 484
      8.5.5   Flywheel Energy Storage System .................. 485
8.6   Comparison .............................................. 486
      8.6.1   Existing Systems ................................ 486
      8.6.2   Lifetime and Capital Cost ....................... 486
      8.6.3   Output Power and Stored Energy Densities ........ 489
      8.6.4   Cycle Efficiency ................................ 492

Chapter 9 Stationary Applications. III. Lead-Acid Batteries
for Solar and Wind Energy Storage
R. Wagner
9.1   Introduction ............................................ 497
9.2   Energy Storage for Solar and Wind Systems ............... 498
9.3   Flooded Batteries ....................................... 502
9.4   Large Batteries ......................................... 505
9.5   Small Systems with VRLA Batteries ....................... 512
9.6   Large Systems with Gel Batteries ........................ 524
9.7   Further Developments .................................... 537
9.8   Conclusions ............................................. 543

Chapter 10 Stationary Applications. IV. The Role of Nickel-
Cadmium Batteries.
A. Green
10.1  Introduction ............................................ 547
10.2  History ................................................. 547
10.3  Chemistry ............................................... 548
      10.3.1  Memory Effect ................................... 549
10.4   Construction Features of Nickel-Cadmium Cells .......... 550
      10.4.1  Plate Technology ................................ 550
      10.4.2  Active Materials ................................ 551
      10.4.3  Separators ...................................... 552
      10.4.4  Electrolyte ..................................... 552
      10.4.5  Range of Products Available ..................... 552
10.5  Electrical and Mechanical Characteristics ............... 552
      10.5.1  Performance at High and Low Temperatures ........ 553
      10.5.2  Lifetime at High Temperatures ................... 554
      10.5.3  Cycling Behaviour ............................... 554
      10.5.4  Charge Characteristics .......................... 555
10.6  Cost and Reliability Considerations ..................... 556
10.7  A Large Battery in an Energy Storage Application ........ 558
      10.7.1  Introduction .................................... 558
      10.7.2  Defining the BESS ............................... 558
      10.7.3  The BESS Design ................................. 559
      10.7.4  Operating Results ............................... 561
      10.7.5  Awards .......................................... 561
      10.7.6  Final Considerations ............................ 562
10.8  Small Batteries in Telecommunication Applications ....... 562
10.9  Lifetime and Reliability: The Case of an Old Battery .... 564
10.10 Nickel-Cadmium Applications Summary ..................... 566


Chapter 11 Miscellaneous Applications. I. Metering, Power
Tools, Alarm/Security, Medical Equipments, etc.
M. Grimm
11.1  The Power Sources ....................................... 573
      11.1.1  The Different Electrochemical Systems ........... 573
      11.1.2  How to Select the Right Power Source? ........... 577
11.2  Metering Systems ........................................ 578
      11.2.1  Heat Meters and HCA (Heat Cost Allocators) ...... 580
      11.2.2  Power (Electricity) Meters ...................... 581
      11.2.3  Gas Meters ...................................... 582
      11.2.4  Water Meters .................................... 583
      11.2.5  Data Loggers with RF Transmission ............... 583
      11.2.6  Data Loggers with GSM or GPRS Transmission ...... 584
      11.2.7  AMR (Automatic Meter Readers) ................... 585
      11.2.8  Others .......................................... 586
11.3  Remote Mobile Monitoring ................................ 587
      11.3.1  ID Tags ......................................... 587
      11.3.2  Bar Code Portable Readers ....................... 589
      11.3.3  GPS (Global Positioning Systems) ................ 590
      11.3.4  GSM (Global System for Mobile Phones) Modules ... 591
11.4  Automatic Assistance Systems ............................ 592
      11.4.1  SARSAT/COSPAS Beacons ........................... 592
      11.4.2  Safety Lights ................................... 594
11.5  Alarm and Security Systems .............................. 594
      11.5.1  Emergency Light Units (ELUs) .................... 595
      11.5.2  Wireless Alarm Sensors .......................... 596
      11.5.3  Wireless Alarm Central Units .................... 597
      11.5.4  Alarm Sirens .................................... 597
      11.5.5  ZigBee .......................................... 598
      11.5.6  Access Control Systems .......................... 599
      11.5.7  Remote Level Control Systems .................... 600
      11.5.8  Telematics Systems .............................. 601
      11.5.9  Power Line Surveillance ......................... 601
      11.5.10 PIGs ............................................ 601
11.6  Memory Back Up (MBU) - Real Time Clocks (RTC) ........... 602
11.7  Professional Cordless Tools ............................. 603
      11.7.1  Drills .......................................... 604
      11.7.2  Drills and Screw Drivers-Wrenches ............... 605
      11.7.3  Screw Drivers ................................... 605
      11.7.1  Grinders and Sanders ............................ 605
      11.7.5  Planers ......................................... 606
      11.7.6  Saws (Circular, Jig, Sabre, Diamond, etc.) ...... 606
      11.7.7  Mini Tools ...................................... 606
      11.7.8  Irrigation Systems .............................. 607
      11.7.9  Hedge Trimmers, Chain Saws, Pruning Shears ...... 607
11.8  Professional Appliances ................................. 608
      11.8.1  Handheld Terminals .............................. 608
      11.8.2  Professional A/V (Audio/Video) Equipments ....... 609
11.9  Ambulatory Medical Equipments ........................... 610
      11.9.1  Portable Defibrillator Systems .................. 610
      11.9.2  Inter-Cardial Pump Systems ...................... 611
      11.9.3  Ventricular Assist Pump Systems ................. 612
      11.9.4  Emergency Portable Medical Fluid Warmers ........ 612
      11.9.5  Powered Respirators ............................. 613
      11.9.6  Special Medical Tools ........................... 614
11.10 Conclusion .............................................. 614


Chapter 12 Miscellaneous Applications. II. Tracking Systems,
Toll Collection, Oil Drilling, Car Accessories, Oceanography
H. Yamin, M. Shlepakov and C. Menachem
12.1  Introduction ............................................ 617
12.2  Tyre Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) ...................617
      12.2.1  Direct, Indirect and Battery-Less TPMS .......... 618
      12.2.2  Power Consumption ............................... 619
      12.2.3  Power Sources for TPMS .......................... 619
12.3  Electronic Toll Collection .............................. 620
      12.3.1  Toll Collection Systems ......................... 621
      12.3.2  Power Sources ................................... 621
12.4  Automatic Crash Notification (ACN) ...................... 622
      12.4.1. Electrical Requirements and Power Sources ....... 623
12.5  Tracking ................................................ 624
      12.5.1  Tracking Methods ................................ 624
      12.5.2  GPS Transmitters ................................ 626
      12.5.3  Power Sources ................................... 628
      12.5.4  Advantages and Disadvantages of Available
              Batteries ....................................... 631
12.6  Oil Drilling ............................................ 632
      12.6.1  Applications .................................... 633
      12.6.2  Power Requirements .............................. 634
      12.6.3  Criteria of Battery Choice ...................... 636
      12.6.4  Battery Chemistry ............................... 638
      12.6.5. Future Developments ............................. 640
12.7  Oceanography ............................................ 641
      12.7.1  Applications .................................... 642
      12.7.2  Power Requirements .............................. 642
      12.7.3  Criteria of Battery Choice ...................... 643

Chapter 13 Battery Management and Life Prediction
B.Y. Liaw and D.D. Friel
13.1  Definitions ............................................. 649
      13.1.1  Battery Management .............................. 649
      13.1.2  Battery Life Prediction ......................... 650
13.2  Monitoring & Measuring .................................. 652
      13.2.1  Cell Monitoring ................................. 652
      13.2.2  Cell Measurement ................................ 655
      13.2.3  Battery Monitoring .............................. 656
      13.2.4  Battery Measurement ............................. 657
13.3  Battery Management Functions ............................ 657
      13.3.1  Charge Management ............................... 658
      13.3.2  Discharge Management ............................ 663
      13.3.3  Safety Management ............................... 670
      13.3.4  "Smart Battery System" - A Specific Battery
              Management Example .............................. 671
13.4  Life Prediction ......................................... 673
      13.4.1  Performance Prediction: Stage One
              Developments .................................... 675
      13.4.2  Life Prediction with Laboratory Evaluations:
              Stage Two Development ........................... 679
      13.4.3  Life Prediction in Practical Use: Stage Three
              Developments .................................... 683
      13.4.4  Future Directions ............................... 686

Chapter 14 Battery Collection and Recycling
D. Cheret
14.1  Introduction ............................................ 691
14.2  Eco-efficiency Study on Recycling Techniques ............ 692
14.3  Trans-Boundary Movement of Batteries within the OECD
      Member States ........................................... 696
14.4  Battery Collection Schemes .............................. 699
      14.4.1  The Particular European Situation ............... 699
      14.4.2  Financing the Schemes ........................... 700
      14.4.3  A Closed Loop Concept to Reduce the Exposure
              to Metal Price Fluctuation ...................... 703
14.5  The Particular Example of a Battery Producer: SAFT ...... 704
14.6  Recycling Rate: What Does It Mean? ...................... 705
14.7  Battery Recycling: The Existing Technologies ............ 707
      14.7.1  The Recycling of Mixed Batteries ................ 709
      14.7.2  The Recycling of Batteries Containing Mercury ... 711
      14.7.3  The Recycling of Zinc-Carbon and Alkaline-
              Manganese Primary Batteries ..................... 714
      14.7.4  The Recycling of Lithium Primary Batteries ...... 718
      14.7.5  The Recycling of Lead-Acid Batteries ............ 719
      14.7.6  The Recycling of NiCd Batteries ................. 722
      14.7.7  The Recycling of NiMH Batteries ................. 727
      14.7.8  The Recycling of Li-ion and Li-Polymer
              Batteries ....................................... 730
14.8  Conclusion .............................................. 736

Chapter 15 World Market for Industrial Batteries
D. Saxman
15.1  Scope & Analysis Assumption ............................. 737
      15.1.1  Definition of Industrial Battery ................ 737
      15.1.2  Definitions of Industrial Battery Market
              Sectors ......................................... 738
      15.1.3  Other Analysis Assumptions ...................... 740
15.2  Driving Forces Used to Predict World Market Value ....... 740
15.3  Industrial Energy Storage Systems ....................... 742
      15.3.1  Battery Characteristics by Type ................. 743
      15.3.2  Competing Fuel Cell Systems ..................... 746
      15.3.3  Competing Exotic Energy Storage Systems ......... 748
15.4  Industrial Battery Configurations ....................... 748
      15.4.1  Lifecycle Configurations ........................ 749
      15.4.2  Technical Configurations ........................ 749
15.5  Driving Forces by Market Sector ......................... 750
      15.5.1  Computing Batteries ............................. 750
      15.5.2  Communications Batteries ........................ 751
      15.5.3  Portable Tools Batteries ........................ 753
      15.5.4  Other Portable Product Batteries ................ 754
      15.5.5  Medical Batteries ............................... 755
      15.5.6  Computer Memory Batteries ....................... 756
      15.5.7  UPS/Stationary Batteries ........................ 756
      15.5.8  Military/Aerospace Batteries .................... 757
      15.5.9  Industrial EV Batteries ......................... 759
      15.5.10 HEV/EV Batteries ................................ 760
      15.5.11 Auto SLI Batteries .............................. 761
15.6  Historic and Predicted World Market Summary for
      Industrial Batteries .................................... 762

Subject Index ................................................. 767


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