Superlubricity (Amsterdam; Oxford, 2007). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаSuperlubricity / ed. by A.Erdemir, J.-M.Martin. - Amsterdam; Oxford: Elsevier, 2007. - xxiv, 499 p.: ill. - Incl. bibl. ref. - Sub. ind.: p.493-499. - ISBN-10 0-444-52772-9; ISBN-13 978-0-444-52772-1
 

Оглавление / Contents
 
Foreword ....................................................... xv
Introduction ................................................. xvii
Contributors .................................................. xxi
1  Superlubricity for Incommensurate Crystalline and
   Disordered Interfaces ........................................ 1
   J.B. Sokoloff ................................................ 1
   1.1  Superlubricity for Incommensurate Interfaces ............ 1
   1.2  Superlubricity for Disordered Interfaces ................ 3
   1.3  Friction Resulting from Multiscale Roughness ............ 6
   1.4  Superlubricity Resulting from Polymer Brushes .......... 11
   1.5  Conclusions ............................................ 14
   References .................................................. 14
2  Superlubricity of Clean Surfaces ............................ 17
   M. Hirano ................................................... 17
   2.1  Introduction ........................................... 17
   2.2  Preliminaries: Tomlinson's Picture ..................... 18
   2.3  The Criterion for the Occurrence of Tomlinson's
        Mechanism .............................................. 21
   2.4  Atomistic Origin of Friction ........................... 25
        2.4.1  Frictional Model ................................ 25
        2.4.2  Static Friction ................................. 26
        2.4.3  Dynamic Friction: Energy Dissipation ............ 27
   2.5  Superlubricity ......................................... 30
        2.5.1  Superlubricity and Adiabatic Motion of Atoms .... 30
        2.5.2  Friction Diagram ................................ 31
        2.5.3  Superlubricity and High Dimensionality .......... 33
        2.5.4  Energy Recurrence Phenomena ..................... 34
   2.6  Summary ................................................ 36
   References .................................................. 37
3  Theoretical Studies of Superlubricity ....................... 39
   С.Е. Сатраñá and M.H. Müser ................................. 39
   3.1  Introduction ........................................... 39
   3.2  Theory ................................................. 40
        3.2.1  Friction and Superlubricity ..................... 40
        3.2.2  Dry Friction on Idealized Zero Temperature
               Analytic Models ................................. 41
        3.2.1  Disorder, Symmetry and Dimensionality ........... 44
        3.2.4  Thermal and Quantum Effects ..................... 46
   3.3  Computer Simulations ................................... 47
        3.3.1  Rough Interfaces, Elastic Solids and
               Superlubricity .................................. 47
        3.3.2  Lennard-Jones Systems ........................... 50
        3.3.3  Adsorbed Layers, Confined Fluids and Boundary
               Lubrication ..................................... 51
        3.3.4  Solid Lubricants and Layered Structures ......... 52
        3.3.5  Metallic Contacts ............................... 53
        3.3.6  Carbon Films and Hydrogen-Terminated Surfaces ... 54
   3.4  Conclusions ............................................ 54
   References .................................................. 55
4  Ab-initio Atomic Scale Study of Nearly Frictionless
   Surfaces .................................................... 57
   S. Ciraci, T. Yildirim, S. Dag and O. Gulseren .............. 57
   4.1  Introduction ........................................... 57
   4.2  Frictionless Sliding ................................... 59
        4.2.1  General Theoretical Arguments ................... 59
        4.2.2  Recent Experimental Progress .................... 60
   4.3  Description of Theoretical Model ....................... 60
        4.3.1  Atomistic Models and Details for Ab-initio
               Calculations .................................... 60
   4.4  Superlow Friction Coefficient Between Hydrogenated
        Diamond Surfaces ....................................... 61
        4.4.1  Force Variations in the Sliding Friction of
               Two Hydrogenated Diamond Surfaces ............... 63
        4.4.2  Sliding Friction of Hydrogenated Diamond (001)
               Slabs ........................................... 63
        4.4.3  Effect of Oxidation ............................. 67
   4.5  Ab-initio Study of Atomic-Scale Friction Between
        Cubic BN-Surfaces ...................................... 68
   4.6  Conclusions ............................................ 75
   Acknowledgements ............................................ 75
   References .................................................. 76
5  Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Tribology ................. 79
   J.D. Schall, P.T. Mikulski, G.M. Chateauneuf, G. Gao and
   J.A. Harrison ............................................... 79
   5.1  Introduction ........................................... 79
   5.2  MD Simulation Methods .................................. 80
        5.2.1  Outline of Method ............................... 80
        5.2.2  Simulation of Tribology ......................... 83
   5.3  Reactive Potentials .................................... 84
        5.3.1  Covalent Potentials ............................. 84
        5.3.2  Development and Fitting of Bond-Order
               Potential ....................................... 88
        5.3.3  Covalent + Intermolecular Forces (AIREBO) ....... 91
   5.4  Recent MD Work ......................................... 92
        5.4.1  Tribochemistry at the Sliding Interface ......... 92
        5.4.2  Intrafilm Tribochemistry ........................ 96
        5.4.3  Self-assembled Monolayers ....................... 98
   5.5  Conclusion ............................................ 100
   Acknowledgements ........................................... 100
   References ................................................. 100
6  What Causes Low Friction; What Causes High Friction ........ 103
   Y. Zhu and S. Granick ...................................... 103
   6.1  Introduction .......................................... 103
   6.2  Superlubricity in Boundary Lubrication ................ 103
   6.3  Controlling the Boundary Condition of Hydrodynamic
        Flow .................................................. 108
        6.3.1  The Mechanism that Controls Slip in
               Low-viscosity Fluids ........................... 109
        6.3.2  "Slip" at Partially-Wetted Surfaces with
               Roughness Varied ............................... 110
        6.3.3  "Slip" Can Be Modulated by Dissolved Gas—at
               Both Wetted and Partially-Wetted Surfaces ...... 112
   6.4  Outlook—The Purposeful Reduction in Friction .......... 114
   6.5  Concluding Remarks .................................... 115
   Acknowledgements ........................................... 115
   References ................................................. 115
7  Frictional Dynamics at the Atomic Scale in Presence of
   Small Oscillations of the Sliding Surfaces ................. 119
   S. Jeon, T. Thundat and Y. Braiman ......................... 119
   7.1  Introduction .......................................... 119
   7.2  Experimental .......................................... 120
        7.2.1  Results and Discussion ......................... 121
        7.2.2  Summary ........................................ 129
   Acknowledgements ........................................... 129
   References ................................................. 129
8  Effect of Surface Roughness and Adsorbates on
   Superlubricity ............................................. 131
   V.N. Samoilov, C. Yang, U. Tartaglino and B.N.J. Persson ... 131
   8.1  Introduction .......................................... 131
   8.2  Model ................................................. 132
   8.3  Numerical Results ..................................... 134
        8.3.1  Clean Smooth and Rough Surfaces ................ 134
        8.3.2  Dependence of the Friction on the Load ......... 137
        8.3.3  Role of Adsorbates ............................. 143
   8.4  Summary and Conclusion ................................ 145
   Acknowledgements ........................................... 146
   References ................................................. 146
9  Atomic-Scale Investigation of Superlubricity on
   Insulating Surfaces ........................................ 147
   E. Gnecco, A. Socoliuc and E. Meyer ........................ 147
   9.1  Introduction .......................................... 147
   9.2  The Tomlinson-Prandtl Model ........................... 148
   9.3  The Superlubric Regime ................................ 152
   9.4  Experimental Evidence of Superlubricity: Quasistatic
        Case .................................................. 154
   9.1  Experimental Evidence of Superlubricity: Dynamic
        Case .................................................. 157
   9.6  Conclusions and Outlook ............................... 159
   References ................................................. 160
10 Superlubricity of Fullerene Intercalated Graphite
   Composite .................................................. 161
   K. Miura and N. Sasaki ..................................... 161
   10.1 Introduction .......................................... 161
   10.2 Sliding of Graphite Flakes ............................ 162
        10.2.1 Sliding of Graphite Flakes over Graphite ....... 162
        10.2.2 Lateral Force versus Load Acting between
               Graphite Surfaces .............................. 164
   10.3 Superlubricity of a Graphite/С60 Monolayer Film/
        Graphite .............................................. 165
        10.3.1 Structure of a Graphite/С60 Monolayer
               Film/Graphite System ........................... 165
        10.3.2 Ultralow Lateral Movement of Сбо Molecules ..... 166
   10.4 Superlubricity of С60 (C70) Intercalated Graphite
        Composite ............................................. 168
        10.4.1 Preparation and Structure of С60 (C70)
               Intercalated Graphite Composite ................ 168
        10.4.2 Superlubricity of С60 (C70) Intercalated
               Graphite Composite ............................. 171
   10.5 Origin of Superlubricity of Fullerene Intercalated
        Graphite Composite .................................... 172
        10.5.1 Elastic Property of New Composite .............. 172
        10.5.2 Internal Sliding of New Composite .............. 173
        10.5.3 Guideline for Designing Ultralow Friction
               System ......................................... 175
        10.5.4 Intercalated Fullerenes Can Control Ultralow
               Friction ....................................... 176
   References ................................................. 177
11 Superlubricity of Ag Nanometer-Thick Layers under
   Macroscopic Sliding System in UHV Condition ................ 179
   M. Goto and F. Honda ....................................... 179
   11.1 Introduction .......................................... 179
   11.2 Experimental Details .................................. 180
   11.3 Film-Thickness Effect on the Lubricity of Ag Film ..... 182
   11.4 Determination of the Shear Plane in Superlubricity
        of Ag Film ............................................ 186
   11.5 Morphological Effect on Superlubricity ................ 188
   11.6 Effect of Crystal Orientation on Superlubricity ....... 192
   11.7 Origin of Ag Film Superlubricity ...................... 195
   11.8 Conclusion ............................................ 197
   References  ................................................ 198
12 Superlubricity between Graphite Surfaces ................... 199
   M. Dienwiebel and J.W.M. Frenken ........................... 199
   12.1 Introduction .......................................... 199
   12.2 Incommensurability-Induced Transition to Frictionless
        Sliding ............................................... 200
   12.3 Atomic-Scale Observation of Superlubricity between
        Graphite Surfaces ..................................... 200
   12.4 Towards Applications .................................. 204
   12.5 Summary ............................................... 205
   Acknowledgements ........................................... 206
   References ................................................. 206
13 Superlubricity of Molybdenum Disulfide ..................... 207
   J.M. Martin ................................................ 207
   13.1 Low, Ultralow and Superlow Friction ................... 207
   13.2 Characterization of Sputter-Deposited MoS2 Coatings ... 208
   13.3 Experimental Details for UHV Tribometry and MoS2
        Film Deposition ....................................... 210
   13.4 Ultralow and Superlow Friction of MoS2 Coatings ....... 210
   13.5 HRTEM Investigation of MoS2 Wear Debris ............... 216
   13.6 Possible Explanation for Superlubricity of MoS2 ....... 217
   13.7 Ultralow Friction by MoS2 Single Sheets. Towards
        Superlubricity under Boundary Lubrication ............. 220
   13.8 Ultralow Friction by MoS2 Nanoparticles ............... 223
        13.8.1 Nanotribology on MoS2 Crystals ................. 223
   References ................................................. 224
14 Superlubricity of Tungsten Disulfide Coatings in Ultra
   High Vacuum ................................................ 227
   L. Joly-Pottuz and M. Iwaki ................................ 227
   14.1 Introduction .......................................... 227
   14.2 WS2 Coatings .......................................... 228
   14.3 IF-WS2 coatings ....................................... 230
   14.4 Conclusions ........................................... 235
   Acknowledgements ........................................... 235
   References ................................................. 235
15 Superlubricity by H2S Gas Lubrication of Mo ................ 237
   I.L. Singer and T. Le Mogne ................................ 237
   Abstract ................................................... 237
   15.1 Introduction .......................................... 237
   15.2 Experimental .......................................... 239
        15.2.1 Friction and Surface Analysis Apparatus ........ 239
        15.2.2 Sample Preparation and Friction Test
               Procedures ..................................... 239
   15.3 Results ............................................... 240
        15.3.1 Friction Coefficient vs. Gas Pressure .......... 240
        15.3.2 Friction Coefficient vs. Speed ................. 245
   15.4 Discussion ............................................ 247
   15.5 Conclusions ........................................... 250
   Acknowledgements ........................................... 250
   References ................................................. 250
16 Superlubricity in Diamondlike Carbon Films ................. 253
   A. Erdemir and O.L. Eryilmaz ............................... 253
   16.1 Introduction .......................................... 253
   16.2 Superlubricity in Crystalline Solids .................. 254
        16.2.1 Lamellar Solids ................................ 254
        16.2.2 Other Solids ................................... 256
   16.3 Superlubricity in Amorphous Carbons ................... 257
        16.3.1 Diamondlike Carbon Films ....................... 258
        16.3.2 Synthesis and Main Characteristics of DLC
               Films .......................................... 258
        16.3.3 Classification ................................. 259
        16.3.4 Lubrication Mechanisms ......................... 259
        16.3.5 Origin of Superlubricity in DLC Films .......... 262
   16.4 Summary and Future Direction .......................... 268
   Acknowledgements ........................................... 269
   References ................................................. 269
17 Superlow Friction of a-C:H Films: Tribochemical and
   Rheological Effects ........................................ 273
   J. Fontaine and C. Donnet .................................. 273
   17.1 Introduction .......................................... 273
   17.2 The Wide Friction Range of DLC Films .................. 274
        17.2.1 General Behavior ............................... 274
        17.2.2 Experimental Evidence of Superlow Friction ..... 275
   17.3 Conditions for a-C:H Films to Achieve Superlow
        Friction .............................................. 277
        17.3.1 General Requirements to Achieve Superlow
        Friction with DLC Films ............................... 277
        17.3.2 Influence of Hydrogen Content in the Film:
               Low Interacting Surfaces ....................... 278
        17.3.3 Influence of the Mechanical Behavior of the
               Film: Compliant Surfaces ....................... 281
   17.4 Achievement and Preservation of Superlow Friction
        with a-C:H Films ...................................... 283
        17.4.1 How to Achieve Superlow Friction: Tribonlm
               Build-Up Controlled by Surface Chemistry of
               the Counterface ................................ 283
        17.4.2 How to Preserve Superlow Friction:
               Tribo-reactivity of the Contact Controlled by
               Gaseous Environment ............................ 285
   17.5 Conclusion ............................................ 292
   References.................................................. 293
18 Suppression of Moisture Sensitivity of Friction in
   Carbon-Based Coatings ...................................... 295
   C. Freyman, B. Zhao and Y.-W. Chung ........................ 295
   18.1 Introduction .......................................... 295
   18.2 Synthesis ............................................. 297
   18.3 Surface Characterization .............................. 298
        18.3.1 Compositional Analysis ......................... 298
        18.3.2 Surface Roughness .............................. 301
   18.4 Tribological Testing .................................. 302
   18.5 Water-Film Interactions ............................... 304
   18.6 Mechanical Properties ................................. 306
        18.6.1 Hardness and Elastic Modulus ................... 306
        18.6.2 Film Stress .................................... 307
   18.7 Conclusion ............................................ 309
   References ................................................. 309
19 Application of Carbon Based Nano-Materials to Aeronautics
   and Space Lubrication ...................................... 311
   K.W. Street, Jr. K. Miyoshi and R.L. Vander Wal ............ 311
   19.1 Introduction .......................................... 311
   19.2 Experimental .......................................... 312
        19.2.1 Instrumentation ................................ 312
        19.2.2 Sample Preparation ............................. 315
        19.2.3 Analytic Techniques and Post Mortem Analysis ... 316
   19.3 Results and Discussion ................................ 317
        19.3.1 Nano-onion Investigations ...................... 317
        19.3.2 Multi-walled Nanotube Investigations ........... 322
        19.3.3 Single-walled and Surface Fluorinated
               Nanotube Investigations ........................ 332
   19.4 Concluding Remarks .................................... 338
   References ................................................. 338
20 Superlubricity of CNx-coatings in Nitrogen Gas
   Atmosphere ................................................. 341
   K. Kato and K. Adachi ...................................... 341
   20.1 Introduction .......................................... 341
   20.2 Fundamental Properties of CNx-coatings ................ 341
        20.2.1 Coating Method ................................. 341
        20.2.2 Hardness and Microstructure .................... 343
   20.3 Superlubricity of CNx-coating on Si-wafer sliding
        against Si3N4 ball .................................... 345
        20.3.1 Friction on CNx-coatings in Vacuum After
               Short Time Exposure to Air, O2 or N2 ........... 345
        20.3.2 Friction on CNx-coatings in Gases of 7.4×104
               Pa ............................................. 345
   20.4 Superlubricity of CNx-coating on Si3N4 Disk Sliding
        against Si3N4 Ball or CNx-coating on Si3N4 Ball ....... 348
   20.5 Mechanisms of Low Friction and Low Wear of
        CNx-coatings .......................................... 351
        20.5.1 The Effect of Humidity in N2 on Friction ....... 355
        20.5.2 The Effect of O2 in N2 on Friction ............. 358
        20.5.3 The Effect of Surface Roughness on Friction .... 358
        20.5.4 Tribolayers of Superlubricity .................. 360
   20.6 Summary ............................................... 363
   References ................................................. 363
21 Achieving Ultralow Friction by Aqueous, Brush-Assisted
   Lubrication ................................................ 365
   S. Lee and N.D. Spencer .................................... 365
   21.1 Introduction .......................................... 365
   21.2 Macroscopic Scale Contacts ............................ 368
        21.2.1 Rigid Materials ................................ 368
        21.2.2 Soft Materials ................................. 374
   21.3 Micro/Nanoscopic Scale Studies ........................ 378
        21.3.1 General Aspects ................................ 378
        21.3.2 Water-soluble Polymer Brushes .................. 384
   21.4 Summary and Outlook ................................... 391
   References ................................................. 392
22 Friction Control at the Molecular Level: From
   Superlubricity to Stick-Slip ............................... 397
   D. Mazuyer, A. Tonck and J. Cayer-Barrioz .................. 397
   22.1 Introduction .......................................... 397
   22.2 Experimental .......................................... 402
        22.2.1 The Molecular Tribometer ....................... 402
        22.2.2 The Materials .................................. 403
        22.2.3 Experimental Procedure ......................... 405
        22.2.4 Properties of the Confined Layer under
               Loading ........................................ 406
   22.3 Results and Discussion ................................ 409
        22.3.1 Squeeze Behavior of the Adsorbed Layer of
               the Friction Modifiers ......................... 409
        22.3.2 Frictional Properties of the Adsorbed Layers
               of Friction Modifiers .......................... 411
        22.3.3 Physical Interpretation ........................ 422
   References ................................................. 424
23 Super Low Traction under EHD & Mixed Lubrication Regimes ... 427
   P. Vergne .................................................. 427
   23.1 Introduction .......................................... 427
        23.1.1 Superlubricity, Near Frictionless Sliding and
               Super Low Traction ............................. 427
        23.1.2 Chapter Objectives and Summary ................. 428
   23.2 Traction versus Super Low Traction .................... 428
        23.2.1 Generalities on EHD Traction ................... 428
        23.2.2 Super Low Traction and Experimental Issues ..... 430
   23.3 Experimental conditions ............................... 431
   23.4 Lubricated Super Low Traction ......................... 432
        23.4.1 Newtonian Isothermal Piezoviscous Behavior ..... 432
        23.4.2 Shear Thinning ................................. 435
        23.4.3 Thin Film EHD Conditions ....................... 436
   23.5 Discussion and Conclusion ............................. 440
   Acknowledgements ........................................... 442
   Annex: Main Properties of the Lubricants ................... 442
   References ................................................. 442
24 Superlubricity of In Situ Generated Protective Layer on
   Worn Metal Surfaces in Presence of Mg6Si4O10(OH)8 ........... 445
   J. Yuansheng and L. Shenghua ............................... 445
   24.1 Introduction .......................................... 445
   24.2 Tribochemical Principles of In Situ Reconditioning
        of Rubbing Metal Surfaces ............................. 446
        24.2.1 Tribological Process ........................... 446
        24.2.2 Tribochemical Reactions ........................ 447
   24.3 Superlubricity of Protective Layer Generated by ART
        Mechanochemical Reconditioner Package ................. 450
        24.3.1 Protective Layer Generated in Railway
               Locomotive Trials .............................. 450
        24.3.2 Observation of the Protective Layer on
               Cylinder Bore .................................. 451
        24.3.3 Nano-hardness .................................. 453
        24.3.4 Surface Roughness .............................. 454
        24.3.5 Coefficient of Friction ........................ 454
        24.3.6 Protective Layer Generated in Laboratory
               Conditions ..................................... 455
   24.4 Possible Sources of Superlubricity of In Situ
        Generated Protective Layer on Worn Metal Surfaces ..... 461
        24.4.1 Phase Structure of the Protective Layer ........ 462
        24.4.2 Raman Spectrometry Analysis .................... 466
        24.4.3 Possible Sources of Superlubricity ............. 466
   Acknowledgements ........................................... 467
   References ................................................. 467
25 Superlubricity of Diamond/Glycerol Technology Applied to
   Automotive Gasoline Engines ................................ 471
   M.I. De Barros Bouchet and M. Kano ......................... 471
   25.1 Introduction .......................................... 471
   25.2 Methods ............................................... 472
        25.2.1 DLC Materials Preparation ...................... 472
        25.2.2 Tribological Tests ............................. 472
        25.2.3 Engine Tests ................................... 474
        25.2.4 Nanoscratch Measurement ........................ 475
        25.2.5 Mechanical Measurements ........................ 475
        25.2.6 Surface Analyses Techniques .................... 475
        25.2.7 Microstructural Analysis Technique ............. 476
   25.3 Results and Discussion ................................ 477
        25.3.1 DLC Materials Characterizations ................ 477
        25.3.2 Steel/DLC Tribological Systems Lubricated by
               Glycerol Mono-Oleate (GMO) ..................... 481
        25.3.3 DLC/DLC Tribological Systems Lubricated by
               Glycerol and GMO ................................484
        25.3.4 Superlubricity Mechanism as Studied by Surface
               Analyses ....................................... 485
        25.3.5 Engine Test Results and Application ............ 489
   25.4 Conclusion ............................................ 491
   Acknowledgements ........................................... 491
   References ................................................. 492

Subject Index ................................................. 493


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