High energy density lithium batteries: materials, engineering, applications (Weinheim, 2010). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаHigh energy density lithium batteries: materials, engineering, applications / ed. by K.E.Aifantis, S.A.Hackney, R.V.Kumar. - Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2010. - xvi, 265 p.: ill. (some col.). - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.257-265. - ISBN 978-3-527-32407-1
 

Оглавление / Contents
 
   Preface ................................................... XIII
   List of Contributors ........................................ XV

1  Introduction to Electrochemical Cells ........................ 1
   R. Vasant Kumar and Thapanee Sarakonsri
   1.1  What are Batteries? ..................................... 1
   1.2  Quantities Characterizing Batteries ..................... 3
        1.2.1  Voltage .......................................... 4
        1.2.2  Electrode Kinetics (Polarization and Cell
               Impedance) ....................................... 7
               1.2.2.1  Electrical Double Layer ................. 7
               1.2.2.2  Rate of Reaction ........................ 8
               1.2.2.3  Electrodes Away from Equilibrium ........ 8
               1.2.2.4  The Tafel Equation ...................... 8
               1.2.2.5  Example: Plotting a Tafel Curve for 
                        a Copper Electrode ...................... 9
               1.2.2.6  Other Limiting Factors ................. 11
               1.2.2.7  Tafel Curves for a Battery ............. 11
        1.2.3  Capacity ........................................ 13
        1.2.4  Shelf-Life ...................................... 14
        1.2.5  Discharge Curve/Cycle Life ...................... 14
        1.2.6  Energy Density .................................. 15
        1.2.7  Specific Energy Density ......................... 15
        1.2.8  Power Density ................................... 16
        1.2.9  Service Life/Temperature Dependence ............. 16
   1.3  Primary and Secondary Batteries ........................ 17
   1.4  Battery Market ......................................... 19
   1.5  Recycling and Safety Issues ............................ 20
   References .................................................. 25
2  Primary Batteries ........................................... 27
   Thapanee Sarakonsri and R. Vasant Kumar
   2.1  Introduction ........................................... 27
   2.2  The Early Batteries .................................... 27
   2.3  The Zinc/Carbon Cell ................................... 31
         2.3.1  The Leclanché Cell ............................. 31
         2.3.2  The Gassner Cell ............................... 32
         2.3.3  Current Zinc/Carbon Cell ....................... 33
               2.3.3.1  Electrochemical Reactions .............. 34
               2.3.3.2  Components ............................. 35
        2.3.4  Disadvantages ................................... 36
   2.4  Alkaline Batteries ..................................... 36
        2.4.1  Electrochemical Reactions ....................... 38
        2.4.2  Components ...................................... 38
        2.4.3  Disadvantages ................................... 39
   2.5  Button Batteries ....................................... 40
        2.5.1  Mercury Oxide Battery ........................... 40
        2.5.2  Zn/Ag2O Battery ................................. 41
        2.5.3  Metal-Air Batteries ............................. 42
               2.5.3.1  Zn/Air Battery ......................... 44
               2.5.3.2  Aluminum/Air Batteries ................. 45
   2.6  Li Primary Batteries ................................... 46
        2.6.1  Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Batteries .............. 47
        2.6.2  Lithium/Sulfur Dioxide Cells .................... 48
   2.7  Oxyride Batteries ...................................... 49
   2.8  Damage in Primary Batteries ............................ 50
   2.9  Conclusions ............................................ 52
   References .................................................. 52
3  A Review of Materials and Chemistry for Secondary
   Batteries ................................................... 53
   R. Vasant Kumar and Thapanee Sarakonsri
   3.1  The Lead-Acid Battery .................................. 54
        3.1.1  Electrochemical Reactions ....................... 56
        3.1.2  Components ...................................... 57
        3.1.3  New Components .................................. 60
   3.2  The Nickel-Cadmium Battery ............................. 63
        3.2.1  Electrochemical Reactions ....................... 65
   3.3  Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) Batteries ................. 66
   3.4  Secondary Alkaline Batteries ........................... 67
        3.4.1  Components ...................................... 67
   3.5  Secondary Lithium Batteries ............................ 68
        3.5.1  Lithium-Ion Batteries ........................... 70
        3.5.2  Li-Polymer Batteries ............................ 73
        3.5.3  Evaluation of Li Battery Materials and 
               Chemistry ....................................... 74
   3.6  Lithium-Sulfur Batteries ............................... 76
   3.7  Conclusions ............................................ 80
   References .................................................. 80
4  Current and Potential Applications of Secondary Li 
   Batteries ................................................... 81
   Katerina E. Aifantis and Stephen A. Hackney
   4.1  Portable Electronic Devices ............................ 81
   4.2  Hybrid and Electric Vehicles ........................... 82
   4.3  Medical Applications ................................... 85
        4.3.1  Heart Pacemakers ................................ 85
        4.3.2  Neurological Pacemakers ......................... 86
   4.4  Application of Secondary Li Ion Battery Systems in
        Vehicle Technology ..................................... 87
        4.4.1  Parallel Connection ............................. 91
        4.4.2  Series Connections .............................. 93
        4.4.3  Limitations and Safety Issues ................... 97
   References ................................................. 100
5  Li-Ion Cathodes: Materials Engineering Through Chemistry ... 103
   Stephen A. Hackney
   5.1  Energy Density and Thermodynamics ..................... 103
   5.2  Materials Chemistry and Engineering of Voltage 
        Plateau ............................................... 111
   5.3  Multitransition Metal Oxide Engineering for Capacity
        and Stability ......................................... 119
   5.4  Conclusion ............................................ 126
   References ................................................. 126
6  Next-Generation Anodes for Secondary Li-Ion Batteries ...... 129
   Katerina E. Aifantis
   6.1  Introduction .......................................... 129
   6.2  Chemical Attack by the Electrolyte .................... 130
   6.3  Mechanical Instabilities during Electrochemical
        Cycling ............................................... 132
   6.4  Nanostructured Anodes ................................. 135
   6.5  Thin Film Anodes ...................................... 136
        6.5.1  Sn-Based Thin Film Anodes ...................... 136
        6.5.2  Si-Based Thin Film Anodes ...................... 137
   6.6  Nanofiber/Nanotube/Nanowire Anodes .................... 142
        6.6.1  Sn-Based Nanofiber/Nanowire Anodes ............. 142
        6.6.2  Si-Nanowire Anodes ............................. 143
   6.7  Active/Less Active Nanostructured Anodes .............. 146
        6.7.1  Sn-Based Active/Less Active Anodes ............. 146
               6.7.1.1  Sn-Sb Alloys .......................... 146
               6.7.1.2  SnS2 Nanoplates ....................... 148
               6.7.1.3  Sn-C Nanocomposites ................... 149
        6.7.2  Si-Based Active/Less Active Nanocomposites ..... 151
               6.7.2.1  Si-SiO2-C Composites .................. 151
               6.7.2.2  Si-C Nanocomposites ................... 153
   6.8  Other Anode Materials ................................. 157
        6.8.1  Sb-Based Anodes ................................ 157
        6.8.2  Al-Based Anodes ................................ 158
        6.8.3  Bi-Based Anodes ................................ 160
   6.9  Conclusions ........................................... 162
   References ................................................. 162
7  Next-Generation Electrolytes for Li Batteries .............. 165
   Soo-Jin Park, Min-Kang Seo, and Seok Kim
   7.1  Introduction .......................................... 165
   7.2  Background ............................................ 170
        7.2.1  Li-Ion Liquid Electrolytes ..................... 170
        7.2.2  Why Polymer Electrolytes? ...................... 172
        7.2.3  Metal Ion Salts for Polymer Electrolytes ....... 173
   7.3  Preparation and Characterization of Polymer
        Electrolytes .......................................... 174
        7.3.1  Preparation of Polymer Electrolytes ............ 175
               7.3.1.1  Molten-Salt-Containing Polymer Gel
                        Electrolytes .......................... 175
               7.3.1.2  Organic-Modified MMT-Containing
                        Polymer Composite Electrolytes ........ 175
               7.3.1.3  Ion-Exchanged Li-MMT-Containing
                        Polymer Composite Electrolytes ........ 175
               7.3.1.4  Mesoporous Silicate (MCM-41)-
                        Containing Polymer Composite
                        Electrolytes .......................... 176
        7.3.2  Characterization of Molten-Salt-Containing
               Polymer Gel Electrolytes ....................... 176
               7.3.2.1  Morphologies and Structural
                        Properties ............................ 176
               7.3.2.2  Thermal Properties .................... 178
               7.3.2.3  Electrochemical Properties ............ 180
        7.3.3  Characterization of Organic-Modified MMT-
               Containing Polymer Composite Electrolytes ...... 185
               7.3.3.1  Morphologies and Structural
                        Properties ............................ 185
               7.3.3.2  Thermal Properties .................... 188
               7.3.3.3  Electrochemical Properties ............ 189
        7.3.4  Ion-Exchanged Li-MMT-Containing Polymer
               Composite Electrolytes ......................... 191
               7.3.4.1  Structural Properties ................. 191
               7.3.4.2  Thermal Properties .................... 192
               7.3.4.3  Electrochemical Properties ............ 193
        7.3.5  Mesoporous Silicate (MCM-41)-Containing
               Polymer Composite Electrolytes ................. 197
               7.3.5.1  Morphologies and Structural
                        Properties ............................ 197
               7.3.5.2  Thermal Properties .................... 200
               7.3.5.3  Electrochemical Properties ............ 201
   7.4  Conclusions ........................................... 203
   References ................................................. 205
8  Mechanics of Materials for Li-Battery Systems .............. 209
   Katerina E. Aifantis, Kurt Maute, Martin L. Dunn, and
   Stephen A. Hackney
   8.1  Introduction .......................................... 209
   8.2  Mechanics Considerations During Battery Life .......... 211
   8.3  Modeling Elasticity and Fracture During
        Electrochemical Cycling ............................... 214
        8.3.1  Fracture in a Bilayer Configuration ............ 214
        8.3.2  Elasticity and Fracture in an Axially
               Symmetric Configuration ........................ 216
        8.3.3  Fracture and Damage Evolution for Thin Film
               Case ........................................... 220
        8.3.4  Fracture and Damage in Fiber-Like/Nanowire
               Electrodes ..................................... 223
        8.3.5  Spherical Active Sites ......................... 223
        8.3.6  Stability Plots ................................ 226
        8.3.7  Volume Fraction and Particle Size
               Considerations ................................. 227
               8.3.7.1  Information from Stability Index ...... 228
               8.3.7.2  Griffith's Criterion .................. 228
        8.3.8  Critical Crack Length .......................... 230
        8.3.9  Mechanical Stability of Sn/C Island Structure
               Anode .......................................... 231
   8.4  Multiscale Phenomena and Considerations in Modeling ... 235
        8.4.1  Macroscale Modeling ............................ 236
   8.5  Particle Models of Coupled Diffusion and Stress
        Generation ............................................ 239
        8.5.1  Li+ Transport During Extraction and Insertion
               from a Host .................................... 240
        8.5.2  Electrochemical Reaction Kinetics .............. 242
        8.5.3  Stress Generation .............................. 243
        8.5.4  Representative Results ......................... 243
   8.6  Diffusional Processes During Cycling .................. 248
        8.6.1  Multiscale Electrochemical Interactions ........ 248
        8.6.2  Diffusion Stresses in Low Symmetry
               Composition Fields ............................. 252
   8.7  Conclusions ........................................... 254
   References ................................................. 254

   Index ...................................................... 257


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