Purkis S.J. Remote sensing and global environmental change (Oxford, 2011). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаPurkis S.J. Remote sensing and global environmental change / S.Purkis, V.Klemas. - Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. - xi, 367 p.: ill. (some col.), maps. - Ref.: p.316-360. - Ind.: p.361-367. - ISBN 978-1-4051-8225-6
 

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ......................................................... x
Acknowledgements .............................................. xii
1  Introduction ................................................. 1
   1.1  Key concepts ............................................ 4
2  Remote sensing basics ........................................ 6
   2.1  Electromagnetic waves ................................... 6
   2.2  The electromagnetic spectrum ............................ 8
   2.3  Reflectance and radiance ................................ 8
   2.4  Atmospheric effects .................................... 11
   2.5  Multispectral feature recognition ...................... 13
   2.6  Resolution requirements ................................ 14
   2.7  Key concepts ........................................... 16
3  Remote sensors and systems .................................. 18
   3.1  Introduction ........................................... 18
   3.2  Remote sensors ......................................... 19
        3.2.1  Multispectral satellite sensors ................. 19
        3.2.2  Digital aerial cameras .......................... 20
        3.2.3  Thermal infrared sensors ........................ 22
        3.2.4  Radar and microwave radiometers ................. 23
        3.2.5  Laser profilers ................................. 26
   3.3  Remote sensing platforms ............................... 26
        3.3.1  Airborne platforms .............................. 27
        3.3.2  Medium-resolution satellites .................... 28
        3.3.3  High-resolution satellites ...................... 30
        3.3.4  Global observation satellites ................... 32
   3.4  The NASA Earth observing system ........................ 33
   3.5  Global Earth observation systems ....................... 34
        3.5.1  Global Climate Observing System ................. 34
        3.5.2  Global Earth Observation System of Systems ...... 34
        3.5.3  Integrated Ocean Observing System ............... 35
   3.6  Existing image archives ................................ 36
   3.7  Key concepts ........................................... 38
4  Digital image analysis ...................................... 40
   4.1  Image data format ...................................... 40
   4.2  Image pre-processing ................................... 41
   4.3  Image enhancement and interpretation ................... 42
   4.4  Image classification ................................... 44
   4.5  Image band selection ................................... 48
   4.6  Error assessment ....................................... 49
   4.7  Time-series analysis and change detection .............. 50
   4.8  Field sampling using GPS ............................... 56
   4.9  Use of Geographic Information Systems .................. 58
   4.10 Key concepts ........................................... 62
5  Monitoring changes in global vegetation cover ............... 63
   5.1  EM spectrum of vegetation .............................. 63
   5.2  Vegetation indices ..................................... 64
   5.3  Biophysical properties and processes of vegetation ..... 68
   5.4  Classification systems ................................. 71
   5.5  Global vegetation and land cover mapping programmes .... 73
        5.5.1  NASA Pathfinder global monitoring project ....... 74
        5.5.2  International geosphere-biosphere program ....... 75
        5.5.3  Application of new satellites and radar ......... 76
   5.6  Remote sensing of vegetation as a monitor for global
        change ................................................. 77
        CASE STUDY: Desertification in the African Sahel ....... 77
        CASE STUDY: Deforestation of Amazonia .................. 80
   5.7  Remote sensing of wetlands change ...................... 82
   5.8  Fire detection ......................................... 87
   5.9  Key concepts ........................................... 89
6  Remote sensing of urban environments ........................ 91
   6.1  Urbanization ........................................... 91
   6.2  Urban remote sensing ................................... 93
        6.2.1  Three-dimensional urban model generation ........ 98
        6.2.2  Stereo imaging .................................. 98
        6.2.3  LiDAR ........................................... 99
        6.2.4  Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ................. 100
   6.3  Microwave sensing of subsidence ....................... 104
   6.4  Textural metrics ...................................... 108
   6.5  Monitoring city growth ................................ 111
   6.6  Assessing the ecology of cities ....................... 113
   6.7  Urban climatology ..................................... 114
   6.8  Air quality and air pollution ......................... 116
   6.9  Climate change as a threat to urbanization ............ 120
   6.10 Key concepts .......................................... 121
7  Surface and ground water resources ......................... 122
   7.1  Remote sensing of inland water quality ................ 124
   7.2  Remote sensing sediment load and pollution of inland
        waters ................................................ 126
   7.3  Remote sensing non-coastal flooding ................... 129
   7.4  Bathymetry of inland waters ........................... 131
   7.5  Mapping watersheds at the regional scale .............. 132
   7.6  Remote sensing of land surface moisture ............... 135
   7.7  Remote sensing of groundwater ......................... 137
   7.8  Key concepts .......................................... 140
8  Coral reefs, carbon and climate ............................ 142
   8.1  Introduction .......................................... 142
   8.2  The status of the world's reefs ....................... 145
   8.3  Remote sensing of coral reefs ......................... 146
   8.4  Light, corals and water ............................... 148
        8.4.1  Light and the water surface .................... 148
        8.4.2  Light and the water body ....................... 152
        8.4.3  Reflectance models for optically shallow
               waters ......................................... 154
        8.4.4  Reflectance signatures of reef substrata ....... 156
   8.5  Passive optical sensing ............................... 159
   8.6  Sensor-down versus reef-up sensing .................... 164
   8.7  Spectral unmixing ..................................... 165
   8.8  Image-derived bathymetry .............................. 167
   8.9  LiDAR ................................................. 168
   8.10 Sonar ................................................. 170
   8.11 Sub-bottom acoustic profiling ......................... 174
   8.12 Radar applications .................................... 177
   8.13 Class assemblages and the minimum mapping unit ........ 178
   8.14 Change detection ...................................... 180
   8.15 Key concepts .......................................... 183
9  Coastal impact of storm surges and sea level rise .......... 184
   9.1  Predicting and monitoring coastal flooding ............ 186
   9.2  Coastal currents and waves ............................ 191
   9.3  Mapping beach topography .............................. 193
   9.4  LiDAR bathymetry ...................................... 196
   CASE STUDY: LiDAR application to modelling sea level rise
   at the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge ................. 200
   9.5  Key concepts .......................................... 202
10 Observing the oceans ....................................... 204
   10.1 Introduction .......................................... 204
   10.2 Ocean colour, chlorophyll and productivity ............ 205
   10.3 Hazardous algal blooms and other pollutants ........... 210
   10.4 Sea surface temperature ............................... 213
        CASE STUDY: Upwelling and El Niño ..................... 217
   10.5 Ocean salinity ........................................ 220
   10.6 Physical ocean features ............................... 223
        10.6.1 Sea surface elevation and ocean currents ....... 224
        10.6.2 Sea surface winds .............................. 229
        10.6.3 Ocean waves .................................... 231
        10.6.4 Oil slicks and other surface features .......... 232
        10.6.1 Ocean observing Systems ........................ 236
   10.8 Marine GIS ............................................ 237
   10.9 Key concepts .......................................... 239
11 Monitoring Earth's atmosphere .............................. 241
   11.1 The status of Earth's atmosphere ...................... 241
   11.2 Atmospheric remote sensing ............................ 243
   11.3 The 'A-Train' satellite constellation ................. 244
        11.3.1 Dancing on the A-Train ......................... 246
   11.4 Remote sensing atmospheric temperature ................ 246
   11.5 Atmospheric remote sensing of ozone ................... 249
   11.6 Atmospheric remote sensing of carbon dioxide .......... 252
   11.7 Remote sensing atmospheric dust ....................... 258
        CASE STUDY: Spaceborne monitoring of African dust
        events ................................................ 259
   11.8 Clouds ................................................ 262
   11.9 Forecasting Earth's atmosphere ........................ 263
   11.10 Atmospheric models and reality ....................... 263
   11.11 Hurricanes ........................................... 265
        CASE STUDY: Hurricane Katrina.......................... 267
   11.12 Key concepts ......................................... 270
12 Observing the cryosphere ................................... 272
   12.1 Introduction .......................................... 272
   12.2 The history and status of the polar ice sheets ........ 272
   12.3 Ice and sea level ..................................... 274
   12.4 Ice and climate ....................................... 275
   12.5 Present ice loss in context ........................... 277
   12.6 Remote sensing of the Earth's ice sheets .............. 278
        12.6.1 Passive optical and thermal remote sensing ..... 278
        12.6.2 Passive microwave remote sensing ............... 279
        12.6.3 Active microwave remote sensing ................ 281
        12.6.4 Active optical remote sensing - ICESat ......... 284
   12.7 Ice sheet mass balance ................................ 287
        CASE STUDY: Disintegration of the Larsen and Wilkins
        ice shelves ........................................... 288
   12.8 Remote sensing permafrost ............................. 290
   12.9 Key concepts .......................................... 294
13 Effective communication of global change information
   using remote sensing ....................................... 296
   13.1 Global environmental change as an interdisciplinary
        issue ................................................. 297
   13.2 Effective communication through accessibility of
        data .................................................. 299
14 Looking ahead: future developments ......................... 303
   14.1 Emerging technologies ................................. 303
        14.1.1 Fusion in remote sensing ....................... 303
        14.1.2 Hyper-spatial satellites ....................... 304
        14.1.3 Hyperspectral hyper-spatial satellites ......... 306
   14.2 The near future ....................................... 307
   14.3 The more distant future ............................... 310
   14.4 Advanced image analysis techniques .................... 310
   14.5 Looking ahead at a changing Earth ..................... 311
   References ................................................. 316

Index ......................................................... 361

 This book has a companion website: www.wiley.com/go/purkis/remote


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