Dynamic sun (Cambridge; New York, 2003). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаDynamic sun / ed. by B.N.Dwivedi; foreword by E.N.Parker. - Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. - xviii, 443 p.: ill. - Ref.: p.432-433. - Ind.: p.435-443. - ISBN 0-521-81057-4
 

Оглавление / Contents
 
   Foreword .................................................... xv
   E.N. Parker

1  Dynamic Sun: an introduction ................................. 1
   B.N. Dwivedi
   1.1  Introduction ............................................ 1
   1.2  Main contents ........................................... 2
   1.3  Concluding remarks ...................................... 7

2  Solar models: structure, neutrinos and helioseismological
   properties ................................................... 8
   J.N. Bahcall, S. Basu and M.H. Pinsormeault
   2.1  Introduction ............................................ 8
   2.2  Standard solar model .................................... 9
   2.3  Variant and deviant solar models ....................... 11
   2.4  Neutrino physics ....................................... 14
        2.4.1  Standard model .................................. 16
        2.4.2  Calculated uncertainties ........................ 18
        2.4.3  NACRE charged particle fusion rates ............. 20
        2.4.4  Variant and deviant models ...................... 21
        2.4.5  The electron number density ..................... 21
   2.5  Sound speeds ........................................... 24
   2.6  Discussion and summary ................................. 29
        2.6.1  Standard solar model: current epoch ............. 29
        2.6.2  Neutrino fluxes and related quantities .......... 29
        2.6.3  Sound speeds .................................... 31
   References .................................................. 32

3  Seismic Sun ................................................. 36
   S.M. Chitre and H.M. Aitia
   3.1  Introduction ........................................... 36
   3.2  Structure equations and the Standard Solar Model ....... 37
   3.3  Seismology of the Sun .................................. 39
   3.4  Inferences about the solar structure ................... 41
   References .................................................. 52

4  Rotation of the solar interior .............................. 55
   J. Christensen-Dalsgaard and M.J. Thompson
   4.1  Introduction ........................................... 55
   4.2  Helioseismic probes of the solar interior .............. 57
        4.2.1  Rotational effects on the oscillation
               frequencies ..................................... 59
        4.2.2  Data on rotational splitting .................... 60
        4.2.3  Inversion for solar internal rotation ........... 63
   4.3  The solar internal rotation ............................ 64
        4.3.1  Rotation of the solar convection zone ........... 66
        4.3.2  The tachocline .................................. 68
        4.3.3  The radiative interior .......................... 70
   4.4  Modelling solar rotation ............................... 71
   4.5  Final remarks .......................................... 73
   References .................................................. 74

5  Helioseismic tomography ..................................... 78
   A.G. Kosovichev
   5.1  Introduction ........................................... 78
   5.2  Method of helioseismic tomography ...................... 79
   5.3  The ray approximation .................................. 84
   5.4  The Born approximation ................................. 85
   5.5  Inversion methods ...................................... 87
   5.6  Diagnostics of supergranulation ........................ 88
   5.7  Large-scale flows ...................................... 90
   5.8  Meridional circulation ................................. 91
   5.9  Emerging active regions ................................ 91
   5.10 Structure and dynamics of sunspots ..................... 93
   Imaging the far side of the Sun ............................. 97
   Conclusion .................................................. 99
   References ................................................. 100

6  The solar dynamo as a model of the solar cycle ............. 103
   A.R. Choudhuri
   6.1  Introduction .......................................... 103
   6.2  Relevant observations ................................. 104
   6.3  Some basic MHD considerations ......................... 108
   6.4  The turbulent dynamo and mean field MHD ............... 110
   6.5  Dynamo in the overshoot layer? ........................ 114
   6.6  The Babcock-Leighton approach and advective dynamo
        models ................................................ 117
   6.7  Miscellaneous ill-understood issues ................... 121
   6.8  Conclusion ............................................ 123
   References ................................................. 124

7  Spectro-polarimetry ........................................ 128
   J.O. Stenflo
   7.1  Remote sensing of the Sun's magnetic field: an
        introduction .......................................... 128
   7.2  Observational techniques and their limitations ........ 130
   7.3  Zeeman-effect diagnostics ............................. 133
   7.4  The Hanle effect ...................................... 138
   7.5  Optical pumping ....................................... 142
   7.6  Concluding remarks .................................... 146
   References ................................................. 146

8  Solar photosphere and convection ........................... 148
   Å. Nordlund
   8.1  Introduction .......................................... 148
   8.2  Dynamic and thermal properties of the solar
        photosphere ........................................... 150
   8.3  Spectral line synthesis ............................... 152
   8.4  P-mode diagnostics .................................... 156
   8.5  Large scale velocity fields ........................... 159
   8.6  Consequences for coronal and chromospheric heating .... 162
   8.7  Concluding remarks .................................... 162
   References ................................................. 163

9  The dynamics of the quiet solar chromosphere ............... 165
   W. Kalkofen, S.S. Hasan and P. Ulmschneider
   9.1  Introduction .......................................... 165
   9.2  Oscillations in the nonmagnetic chromosphere .......... 166
   9.3  Oscillations in the magnetic network .................. 172
   References ................................................. 178

10 Heating of the solar chromosphere .......................... 181
   P. Ulmschneider and W. Kalkofen
   10.1 Introduction .......................................... 181
   10.2 Empirical chromosphere models ......................... 182
   10.3 Energy balance and the necessity of mechanical
        heating ............................................... 184
   10.4 Overview of the heating mechanisms .................... 187
   10.5 Search for the important heating mechanisms ........... 188
   10.6 Summary and outlook ................................... 193
   References ................................................. 195

11 The solar transition region ................................ 196
   O. Kjeldseth-Moe
   11.1 Introduction .......................................... 196
   11.2 Emission from the transition region plasma ............ 197
        11.2.1 The emitted intensity .......................... 197
        11.2.2 Underlying approximations and concepts ......... 198
   11.3 Constant conductive flux and the thin transition
        region ................................................ 200
   11.4 The extended transition region ........................ 201
        11.4.1 Excess emission at temperatures below 105 К .... 201
        11.4.2 The EUV flash spectrum: direct observation of
               an inhomogeneous transition region ............. 202
        11.4.3 A transition region structured by the
               magnetic field ................................. 202
        11 4.4 Spicules and the transition region ............. 202
        11.4.5 An extremely fine structured transition
               region? ........................................ 203
        11.4.6 Unresolved fine structures ..................... 204
        11.4.7 Unresolved dynamic evolution? .................. 205
   11.5 The redshifted transition region ...................... 205
        11.5.1 Line shifts in the transition region ........... 205
        11.5.2 Red- or blueshifts from siphon flows and
               spicules? ...................................... 206
        11.5.3 Red shifts as signatures of downward
               propagating waves .............................. 207
   11.6 The dynamic and time dependent transition region ...... 208
        11.6.1 Morphology of transition region loops .......... 208
        11.6.2 Velocities in transition region loops .......... 209
        11.6.3 Rapid time changes in the emission ............. 210
   11.7 Conclusion - a new concept for the transition
        region ................................................ 212
   References ................................................. 214

12 Solar Magnetohydrodynamics ................................. 217
   E.R. Priest
   12.1 Introduction .......................................... 217
   12.2 Magnetohydrodynamic equations ......................... 219
        12.2.1 Flux tubes ..................................... 219
        12.2.2 Basic equations ................................ 219
        12.2.3 Induction equation ............................. 220
        12.2.4 The Lorentz force .............................. 223
   12.3 Magnetohydrostatics ................................... 224
        12.3.1 Introduction ................................... 224
        12.3.2 Potential fields ............................... 225
        12.3.3 Force-free fields .............................. 226
        12.3.4 Magnetic flux tubes ............................ 228
   12.4 Magnetohydrodynamic waves ............................. 229
        12.4.1 Soundwaves ..................................... 229
        12.4.2 Alfven waves ................................... 231
        12.4.3 Compressional Alfven waves ..................... 232
        12.4.4 Magnetoacoustic waves .......................... 233
        12.4.5 Shockwaves ..................................... 233
   12.5 Concluding comment .................................... 237
   References ................................................. 237

13 Solar activity ............................................. 238
   Z. Švestka
   13.1 Solar cycles .......................................... 238
   13.2 Active regions ........................................ 240
   13.3 Complexes of activity and interconnecting loops ....... 243
   13.4 Surges, jets, and sprays .............................. 244
   13.5 Solar flares .......................................... 245
   13.6 Coronal mass ejections and coronal storms ............. 249
   13.7 Relation between CMEs and flares ...................... 252
   13.8 Other sources of CMEs ................................. 255
   13.9 Causes of instabilities ............................... 255
   13.10 Accelerated particles ................................ 256
   13.11 Impacts of solar activity at the Earth ............... 257
   References ................................................. 259

14 Particle acceleration ...................................... 262
   A.G. Emslie and J.A. Miller
   14.1 Introduction .......................................... 262
   14.2 Observational constraints ............................. 263
        14.2.1 Electrons ...................................... 264
        14.2.2 Ions ........................................... 266
   14.3 Direct electric field acceleration .................... 266
   14.4 Stochastic acceleration ............................... 271
        14.4.1 The cascading turbulence model ................. 276
        14.4.2 Baseline case .................................. 278
   14.5 Conclusions ........................................... 285
   References ................................................. 285

15 Radio observations of explosive energy releases on the
   Sun ........................................................ 288
   M.R. Kundu and S.M. White
   15.1 Introduction .......................................... 288
   15.2 Flare studies ......................................... 289
        15.2.1 Millimeter flare emission: comparison with
               microwave and hard X-rays/gamma rays ........... 289
        15.2.2 Time profiles of millimeter bursts ............. 291
        15.2.3 Observations of millimeter and microwave
               bursts ......................................... 293
        15.2.4 Simple spiky bursts in microwaves .............. 293
        15.2.5 Microwave and hard X-ray observations of
               footpoint- emission from flaring loops ......... 294
        15.2.6 Double loop configuration of flaring regions ... 295
        15.2.7 Modeling of microwave flares ................... 297
   15.3 Small scale energy releases on the Sun ................ 299
        15.3.1 XBP flares ..................................... 300
               15.3.1.1 Metric type III burst emission from
                        an XBP flare in a coronal hole ........ 300
               15.3.1.2 Microwave observations of XBP
                        flares ................................ 301
        15.3.2 Radio observations of coronal X-ray jets ....... 303
               15.3.2.1 Meterwave observations of jets ........ 303
               15.3.2.2 A statistical study of jets in
                        microwaves ............................ 305
        15.3.3 Active region transient brightenings
               (ARTB's) ....................................... 305
               15.3.3.1 Radio (VLA) observations .............. 306
               15.3.3.2 Radio (Nobeyama) observations ......... 307
               15.3.3.3 Radio (OVRO) observations ............. 307
               15.3.3.4 Transient brightenings in quiet Sun
                        regions ............................... 308
               15.3.3.5 Implications of transients for
                        coronal heating ....................... 308
   15.4 Concluding remarks .................................... 310
   References ................................................. 311

16 Coronal oscillations ....................................... 314
   V.M. Nakariakov
   16.1 Introduction .......................................... 314
   16.2 The method of MHD coronal seismology .................. 315
   16.3 Detectability of MHD waves in the corona .............. 316
   16.4 Compressive waves in polar plumes ..................... 318
        16.4.1 Observations ................................... 318
        16.4.2 Interpretation as slow magnetoacoustic waves ... 319
   16.5 Search for Alfven waves ............................... 322
        16.5.1 Theoretical aspects ............................ 322
        16.5.2 Observational aspects .......................... 323
   16.6 Compressive waves in long loops ....................... 324
        16.6.1 Observations and interpretation ................ 324
        16.6.2 Seismologic implications ....................... 327
   16.7 Flare-generated oscillations of coronal loops ......... 327
        16.7.1 Observations ................................... 327
        16.7.2 Determination of the magnetic field ............ 329
        16.7.3 Determination of transport coefficients ........ 330
   16.8 EIT or coronal Moreton waves .......................... 331
   16.9 Conclusions ........................................... 332
   References ................................................. 332

17 Probing the Sun's hot corona ............................... 335
   K.J.H. Phillips and B.N. Dwivedi
   17.1 The solar corona ...................................... 335
   17.2 The spacecraft era .................................... 338
   17.3 Heating of the corona: theory ......................... 341
   17.4 Observational evidence: transient brightenings ........ 344
   17.5 Physical characteristics of the corona ................ 346
   17.6 Observational evidence: wave motions .................. 349
   17.7 Conclusions ........................................... 351
   References ................................................. 351

18 Vacuum-ultraviolet emission line diagnostics for solar
   plasmas .................................................... 353
   B.N. Dwivedi, A. Mohan and K. Wilhelm
   18.1 The Sun in the ultraviolet emission lines ............. 353
        18.1.1 SUMER spectrograph ............................. 354
   18.2 Atomic processes ...................................... 355
        18.2.1 Emission lines ................................. 356
        18.2.2 Coronal model approximation .................... 357
        18.2.3 Electron collisional excitation and
               de-excitation .................................. 358
        18.2.4 Proton collisional excitation and
               de-excitation .................................. 358
        18.2.5 Ionization balance ............................. 359
   18.3 Plasma diagnostics .................................... 359
        18.3.1 Emission measure analysis ...................... 360
        18.3.2 Electron-density diagnostics ................... 362
        18.3.3 Electron-temperature diagnostics ............... 363
        18.3.4 Abundance determination ........................ 364
   18.4 Some new results from SUMER ........................... 365
        18.4.1 Coronal holes and the solar wind ............... 365
        18.4.2 The "red/blue" Sun ............................. 367
        18.4.3 Explosive events ............................... 368
        18.4.4 Sunspot transition region oscillations ......... 369
        18.4.5 Solar flare observed by SUMER .................. 370
   18.5 Conclusions ........................................... 370
   References ................................................. 371

19 Solar wind ................................................. 374
   E. Marsch, W.I. Axtoid and J.E. McKenzie
   19.1 The solar wind ........................................ 374
   19.2 Basic energy considerations ........................... 375
        19.2.1 Historic restrospective: Parker's model ........ 375
        19.2.2 Problems with a polytropic single-fluid
               model .......................................... 375
        19.2.3 Energy requirements on heavy ions .............. 376
   19.3 Solar corona and wind in three dimensions ............. 377
        19.3.1 Types of solar wind ............................ 377
        19.3.2 Three-dimensional solar corona ................. 377
        19.3.3 Electron density and temperature ............... 379
   19.4 Fast solar wind ....................................... 379
        19.4.1 Coronal and in-situ observations ............... 379
        19.4.2 Basic model equations .......................... 383
        19.4.3 Heating functions .............................. 385
        19.4.4 Some results from model calculations ........... 386
        19.4.5 The wave spectrum: origin, evolution and
               dissipation .................................... 389
        19.4.6 Critical issues in the models .................. 390
   19.5 Slow solar wind ....................................... 391
        19.5.1 Observations of slow flows ..................... 391
        19.5.2 Models of the closed corona and slow wind ...... 392
   19.6 Sources of the solar wind ............................. 394
        19.6.1 Chromospheric network .......................... 394
        19.6.2 Network pico-flares ............................ 395
        19.6.3 Heating of the quiet corona .................... 396
        19.6.4 Some consequences of network flares ............ 396
   19.7 Problems .............................................. 397
        19.7.1 Problems with the observations ................. 397
        19.7.2 Problems with the theory ....................... 398
   19.8 Conclusions ........................................... 399
   References ................................................. 400

20 Solar observing facilities ................................. 403
   B. Fleck and C.U. Keller
   20.1 Introduction .......................................... 403
   20.2 Ground-based instruments .............................. 403
        20.2.1 Present ........................................ 406
               20.2.1.1 General purpose telescopes ............ 406
               20.2.1.2 Synoptic telescopes ................... 408
               20.2.1.3 Synoptic networks ..................... 412
               20.2.1.4 Synoptic radio telescopes ............. 413
        20.2.2 Future plans ................................... 414
               20.2.2.1 General purpose telescopes ............ 414
               20.2.2.2 Synoptic telescopes ................... 415
               20.2.2.3 Radio telescopes ...................... 416
   20.3 Current and planned suborbital missions ............... 416
   20.4 Space missions ........................................ 417
        20.4.1 In operation ................................... 417
               20.4.1.1 Ulysses ............................... 417
               20.4.1.2 Yohkoh ................................ 418
               20.4.1.3 Wind .................................. 419
               20.4.1.4 SOHO .................................. 420
               20.4.1.5 ACE ................................... 423
               20.4.1.6 TRACE ................................. 423
               20.4.1.7 GOES/Solar X-ray imager ............... 424
               20.4.1.8 CORONAS-F ............................. 424
               20.4.1.9 Genesis ............................... 425
               20.4.1.10 HESSI ................................ 425
        20.4.2 In development and under study ................. 426
               20.4.2.1 Solar-B ............................... 426
               20.4.2.2 STEREO ................................ 427
               20.4.2.3 Space Solar Telescope-SST ............. 428
               20.4.2.4 SDO ................................... 428
               20.4.2.5 Solar Orbiter ......................... 429
               20.4.2.6 Solar probe ........................... 430
               20.4.2.7 Solar sentinels ....................... 432
   20.5 Conclusions ........................................... 432
   References ................................................. 432

Index ......................................................... 435


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