Lubin D. Polar remote sensing; vol.1: Atmosphere and Polar Oceans (Berlin; New York; Chichester, 2006). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаLubin D. Polar remote sensing. Vol.1: Atmosphere and Polar Oceans / D.Lubin, R.Massom. - Berlin; New York: Springer; Chichester: Praxis Pub., 2006. - xliv, 756 p. - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.737-756. - ISBN 978-3-540-43097-1
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ........................................................ ix
List of figures ................................................ xv
List of tables ............................................... xxix
List of abbreviations ........................................ xxxi
About the authors ............................................. xli
Publisher credits ........................................... хliii

1  Introduction ................................................. 1
   1.1  NASA in the 19th century: the great U.S. Exploring
        Expedition discovers Antarctica ......................... 2
        1.1.1  Holes in the poles ............................... 3
        1.1.2  The dawn of big government science ............... 7
        1.1.3  The seventh continent ........................... 21
        1.1.4  Epilogue ........................................ 36
   1.2  Introduction to satellite remote sensing of polar
        regions ................................................ 39
   1.3  NASA in the 21st century: the Earth Observing System ... 44
        1.3.1  Terra, Aqua, and Aura ........................... 46
        1.3.2  Smaller EOS missions ............................ 49
        1.3.3  NPOESS .......................................... 53
   1.4  European Space Agency .................................. 54
   1.5  Russian missions ....................................... 55
   1.6  Japanese missions ...................................... 56
   1.7  Indian missions ........................................ 56
   1.8  Chinese missions ....................................... 57
   1.9  Satellite data availability and utilization ............ 57
   1.10 References ............................................. 59
2  Satellite imaging and radiometry ............................ 61
   2.1  Introduction ........................................... 61
   2.2  The polar-orbiting spacecraft .......................... 62
   2.3  Radiometric quantities ................................. 66
        2.3.1  Intensity and flux .............................. 66
        2.3.2  Reflectance and albedo .......................... 69
        2.3.3  Scattering and absorption ....................... 74
        2.3.4  The radiative transfer equation ................. 84
        2.3.5  Thermal radiation ............................... 86
        2.3.6  Managing the radiative transfer equation ........ 88
   2.4  Scanning ............................................... 92
   2.5  Detectors .............................................. 98
   2.6  Spectral band selection ............................... 108
   2.7  Calibration ........................................... 109
   2.8  Microwave radiometry .................................. 112
   2.9  Spectral radiometry ................................... 119
        2.9.1  Dispersing spectrometers ....................... 120
        2.9.2  Fourier transform spectrometers ................ 123
        2.9.3  Microwave spectrometers ........................ 127
   2.10 References ............................................ 129
3  The polar stratosphere ..................................... 133
   3.1  The springtime Antarctic ozone decrease ............... 134
   3.2  The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer .................. 143
        3.2.1  The TOMS instrument and algorithm .............. 144
        3.2.2  The Curse of Captain Wilkes .................... 151
   3.3  Ozone retrieval from infrared sounders ................ 153
   3.4  The Polar Ozone and Atmospheric Measurement program ... 157
        3.4.1  Instrument description ......................... 159
        3.4.2  Retrieval principles ........................... 162
   3.5  Remote sensing of polar stratospheric clouds .......... 168
        3.5.1  Occultation experiments ........................ 169
        3.5.2  Imager studies ................................. 173
   3.6  Polar mesospheric clouds .............................. 176
   3.7  Arctic ozone depletion ................................ 177
   3.8  The ozone hole, solar ultraviolet radiation, and
        Antarctic ecology ..................................... 179
   3.9  References ............................................ 184
4  Polar climate and meteorology .............................. 193
   4.1  Introduction .......................................... 193
   4.2  The Antarctic automatic weather station program ....... 195
   4.3  Satellite meteorology ................................. 199
        4.3.1  Polar lows ..................................... 201
        4.3.2  Katabatic winds ................................ 205
        4.3.3  Wind vectors from polar orbiter data ........... 207
   4.4  Cloud detection and classification .................... 213
        4.4.1  Contrasting spectral signatures ................ 217
        4.4.2  Automated texture recognition .................. 221
   4.5  Cloud radiative properties ............................ 226
        4.5.1  Cloud phase discrimination ..................... 230
        4.5.2  Cloud optical depth and effective radius ....... 235
        4.5.3  Uncertainties .................................. 241
        4.5.4  Comparison with in situ and ground-based
               measurements ................................... 244
   4.6  Surface albedo and temperature ........................ 249
        4.6.1  Field measurements and theoretical studies ..... 250
        4.6.2  Remote sensing of sea ice albedo ............... 256
        4.6.3  Remote sensing of ice surface temperature ...... 260
   4.7  Satellite investigation of the polar radiation
        budget ................................................ 262
        4.7.1  Sensitivity studies ............................ 264
        4.7.2  Use of Earth radiation budget sensors .......... 274
        4.7.3  Aerosols ....................................... 277
   4.8  The Polar Pathfinder dataset-example of a successful
        high-latitude adaptation .............................. 282
   4.9  Modern experimental programs .......................... 291
   4.10 References ............................................ 295
5  Sea ice .................................................... 309
   5.1  Introduction .......................................... 309
   5.2  Sea ice formation processes (and the life of brine) ... 316
   5.3  Polar contrasts ....................................... 321
   5.4  The profound impact and role of sea ice ............... 323
        5.4.1  Physical and biogeochemical significance ....... 323
        5.4.2  Ecological significance of sea ice ............. 328
   5.5  Recent observations and simulations of rapid change,
        and current uncertainties ............................. 331
   5.6  The growth, decay, and heat budget of sea ice-
        dynamics versus thermodynamics ........................ 343
        5.6.1  The surface energy balance of a sea-ice-
               covered ocean .................................. 344
        5.6.2  Sea ice dynamic processes ...................... 352
   5.7  Basic remote-sensing principles relating to the
        measurement of sea ice and its snow cover ............. 356
        5.7.1  Optical properties of sea ice and its snow
               cover .......................................... 358
        5.7.2  Thermal infrared remote sensing of sea ice
               and its snow cover ............................. 364
        5.7.3  Microwave properties ........................... 368
   5.8  Major sensor classes and their attributes as sea
        ice research tools .................................... 380
        5.8.1  Passive microwave sensors ...................... 380
        5.8.2  Active microwave ............................... 385
   5.9  Key geophysical parameters from satellite data ........ 420
        5.9.1  Ice concentration .............................. 422
        5.9.2  Ice extent and ice edge characteristics ........ 443
        5.9.3  Fast ice distribution and behavior ............. 462
        5.9.4  Polynyas ....................................... 466
        5.9.5  Sea ice motion, dynamics, and kinematics ....... 487
        5.9.6  Sea ice thickness and its distribution ......... 507
        5.9.7  Sea-ice-type discrimination (classification) ... 528
        5.9.8  Snow cover thickness ........................... 560
        5.9.9  Ice/snow surface roughness characteristics ..... 564
        5.9.10 Floe size distribution ......................... 568
        5.9.11 Sea ice/snow skin surface temperature .......... 571
        5.9.12 Sea ice temperature ............................ 580
        5.9.13 Sea ice albedo ................................. 582
        5.9.14 Snow surface grain size and impurities ......... 590
        5.9.15 Detection of ice/snow melt and refreezing ...... 591
        5.9.16 Wave-ice interaction, and ice edge processes ... 604
        5.9.17 Operational ice observation, analysis, and
               forecasting .................................... 609
   5.10 References ............................................ 616

Appendix: Parameters of synthetic aperture radar missions ..... 729
Index ......................................................... 737


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