Mackowiak J. Fluid dynamics of packed columns: principles of the fluid dynamic design of columns for gas/liquid and liquid/liquid systems (Berlin; Heidelberg, 2010). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаMaćkowiak J. Fluid dynamics of packed columns: principles of the fluid dynamic design of columns for gas/liquid and liquid/liquid systems / translated by C.Hall with the cooperation of A.Lugowska-Czok. - Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer, 2010. - xxi, 355 p.: ill. - (Chemical engineering). - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.351-355. - ISBN 978-3-540-88780-5
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Part I
Principles of the Fluid Dynamic Design of Packed Columns for
Gas/Liquid Systems

1  Introduction ................................................ 11
   1.1  General Information on Packed Columns .................. 11
   1.2  Development of Packed Columns and Their Significance
        in Rectification and Absorption Technology ............. 14
   1.3  Brief Overview of Existing Monographs and/or Complex
        Reviews on Packed Column Design ........................ 17
   1.4  Conclusion Chapter 1 ................................... 21
2  Two-Phase Flow and Operating Range .......................... 25
   2.1  Hydraulic Processes in Packed Columns .................. 25
   2.2  Flooding Point ......................................... 29
        2.2.1  Flooding Mechanisms ............................. 29
        2.2.2  Droplet Formation in Packed Columns ............. 31
        2.2.3  Literature Overview-Status of Knowledge ......... 34
        2.2.4  New Model of Suspended Bed of Droplets (SBD)
               for Determining Gas Velocity uVFl at Flooding
               Point ........................................... 44
        2.2.5  Conclusions Chapter 2.2 ......................... 88
   2.3  Determining Column Diameter ............................ 93
   2.4  Lower Loading Line ..................................... 93
        2.4.1  Conclusions Section 2.4 ......................... 94
3  Pressure Drop of Dry Packed Columns ........................ 123
   3.1  Introduction .......................................... 123
   3.2  Law of Resistance for Single-Phase Flow in Packed
        Columns ............................................... 123
        3.2.1  Determining the Resistance Coefficient ψ for
               Pall Rings ..................................... 127
        3.2.2  Determining the Resistance Coefficient for
               Other Random Packings .......................... 131
        3.2.3  Determining the Resistance Coefficient ψ for
               Structured Packings ............................ 133
   3.3  Introducing a Channel Model Based on Partially
        Perforated Channel Walls .............................. 140
        3.3.1  Determining the Resistance Coefficient for
               Non-perforated Packing Elements ................ 142
        3.3.2  Determining the Pressure Drop in Single-Phase
               Flow - Final Equation .......................... 143
        3.3.3  Evaluation of Results .......................... 143
   3.4  Conclusions Chapter 3 ................................. 145
4  Pressure Drop of Irrigated Random and Structured Packings .. 175
   4.1  Introduction and Literature Overview .................. 175
        4.1.1  Significance of Pressure Drop for Packed
               Column Design .................................. 175
        4.1.2  Literature Overview ............................ 176
   4.2  Liquid Hold-Up ........................................ 183
        4.2.1  Basic Terms .................................... 184
        4.2.2  Static Liquid Hold-Up .......................... 184
        4.2.3  Dynamic Liquid Load Below the Loading Line ..... 185
        4.2.4  Analysing the Influence of Various Parameters
               on Liquid Hold-Up, Based on Literature Data .... 188
        4.2.5  Test Method, Systems and Packing Elements ...... 190
        4.2.6  Experimental Results ........................... 190
        4.2.7  Conclusions Section 4.2 ........................ 204
   4.3  Model for Determining the Pressured Drop of Irrigated
        Random and Structured Packings, Based on the Known
        Resistance Coefficient ψ for Single-Phase Flow and
        the Dimensionless Pressure Drop Δр/ Δр0 ............... 207
        4.3.1  Deriving the Model ............................. 207
        4.3.2  Comparing Calculated and Experimental Values
               for Laminar Liquid Flow, ReL < 2 ............... 209
        4.3.3  Determining the Parameter СB for Turbulent
               Liquid Flow .................................... 211
        4.3.4  Comparing Calculated and Experimental Values
               for Turbulent Liquid Flow ...................... 214
   4.3.5  Conclusions Section 4.3 ............................. 223
5  Pressure Drop of Irrigated Random and Structured Packings
   Based on the Law of Resistance for Two-Phase Flow .......... 247
   5.1  Introduction .......................................... 247
   5.2  Deriving the Model for Determining the Pressure Drop
        of Irrigated Random and Structured Packings ........... 247
   5.3  Law of Resistance ψVL = f(ReL) for Packed Columns
        with Two-Phase Flow - Deriving the Model .............. 248
   5.4  Deriving the Equation for the Calculation of the
        Pressure Drop of Irrigated Random Packings ............ 249
   5.5  Comparing Calculated and Experimental Values
        Throughout the Entire Operating Range of Packed
        Columns ............................................... 250
   5.6  Evaluation of Results ................................. 250
6  Fluid Dynamics of Packed Columns for Gas/Liquid Systems -
   Summary of Results ......................................... 275
   6.1  General Information ................................... 275
   6.2  Determining the Flooding Point ........................ 281
   6.3  Liquid Hold-Up at Flooding Point ...................... 282
   6.4  Pressure Drop and Liquid Hold-Up ...................... 282
        6.4.1  Pressure Drop Below the Loading Line ........... 283
        6.4.2  Liquid Hold-Up Below the Loading Line .......... 284
        6.4.3  Pressure Drop and Liquid Hold-Up in the Range
               Between the Loading Line and the Flooding
               Point .......................................... 285
        6.4.4  Pressure Drop at Flooding Point ................ 286
   6.5  Pressure Drop Calculation Acc. to the ψVL Model
        Presented in Chapter 5 ................................ 287
   6.6  Notes on Tables Containing Technical Data of Random
        and Structured Packings as Well as Model Parameters
        ψFlFl,m for Determining Flooding Point and
        Pressure Drop ......................................... 287
   6.7  Validity Range of Correlations ........................ 288
   6.8  FDPAK Programme for Fluid Dynamic Design of Columns
        with Modern Random and Structured Packings ............ 289
        6.8.1  Programme Information .......................... 289
        6.8.2  Conclusions .................................... 295

Part 2
Principles of the Fluid Dynamic Design of Packed Columns for
Liquid/Liquid Systems

7  Basic Principles of Packed Column Design for Liquid/
   Liquid Systems ............................................. 315
   7.1  Introduction .......................................... 315
   7.2  Two-Phase Flow and Operating Ranges ................... 317
        7.2.1  Dispersed Phase Hold-Up in Packed Columns
               Containing Random and Structured Packings ...... 317
        7.2.2  Droplet Diameter ............................... 324
   7.3  Determining the Flooding Point ........................ 327
        7.3.1  Introduction ................................... 327
        7.3.2  Rising and Falling Velocity of Droplets in
               Packings - New Model ........................... 331
        7.3.3  Modified Flooding Point Diagram [15] ........... 333
        7.3.4  Model for Determining the Specific Flow Rate
               of the Dispersed Phase at Flooding Point for
               Liquid/Liquid Systems .......................... 335
   7.4  Conclusions ........................................... 338

Index ......................................................... 351


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