Mousdale D.M. Introduction to biofuels (Boca Raton, 2010). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаMousdale D.M. Introduction to biofuels. - Boca Raton: CRC, 2010. - xxvi, 429 p.: ill. - (Mechanical engineering series). - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.421-429. - ISBN 978-1-4398-1207-5
 

Место хранения: 031 | Институт катализа им. Г.К.Борескова CO РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ........................................................ xv
Acknowledgments ............................................... xxi
The Author ................................................... xx»i
Units and Conversion Factors .................................. xxv

Chapter 1  Ethanol as the Leading "First-Generation" Biofuel .... 1
1.1  Introduction ............................................... 1
1.2  Historical Development of Ethanol as a Fuel from
     Neolithic Times to the Twentieth Century ................... 1
1.3  Oil Supply and Oil Price in the Twentieth Century:
     Necessity and Alternative Fuel Programs .................... 6
1.4  Case Study 1: Brazil and Sugarcane Ethanol ................ 10
1.5  Case Study 2: Starch-Based Ethanol in the United States ... 18
1.6  Thermodynamic and Environmental Aspects of Ethanol as
     a Biofuel ................................................. 31
     1.6.1  Net Energy Balance ................................. 31
     1.6.2  Effects on Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and 
            Other Pollutants ................................... 37
1.7  Summary ................................................... 41
References ..................................................... 41

Chapter 2  Cellulosic Ethanol as a "Second-Generation" 
           Biofuel ............................................. 45
2.1  Introduction .............................................. 45
2.2  Bioethanol and Cellulosic Ethanol: The Rise of Biomass-
     Based Biofuels ............................................ 45
2.3  Structural and Industrial Chemistry of Cellulosic
     Biomass ................................................... 46
     2.3.1  Cellulose, Hemicelluloses, and Lignin .............. 46
     2.3.2  Lignocellulose as a Biochemical Resource ........... 51
     2.3.3  Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Materials .......... 53
            2.3.3.1  Physical and Chemical Pretreatment
                     of Lignocellulosic Biomass ................ 53
            2.3.3.2  Acid Hydrolysis of Pretreated
                     Lignocellulosic Biomass ................... 59
2.4  Cellulases: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and 
     Biotechnology ............................................. 61
     2.4.1  Enzymology of Cellulose Degradation by
            Cellulases ......................................... 61
     2.4.2  Cellulases in Lignocellulosic Feedstock 
            Processing ......................................... 65
     2.4.2  and the CRC Press Web site at 
            http://www.crcpress.com
     2.4.3  Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Cellulase
            Production ......................................... 68
            2.4.3.1  Physiological Regulation of Cellulase
                     Production ................................ 68
            2.4.3.2  Regulatory Genes Involved in Cellulase 
                     Production ................................ 69
            2.4.3.3  New-Generation Cellulases ................. 70
            2.4.3.4  Novel Molecular Features of Cellulases .... 74
            2.4.3.5  Immobilized Cellulases .................... 75
2.5  Hemicellulases: New Horizons in Energy Biotechnology ...... 75
     2.5.1  A Multiplicity of Hemicellulases ................... 75
     2.5.2  Hemicellulases in the Processing of 
            Lignocellulosic Biomass ............................ 78
     2.5.3  Molecular Biology of Hemicellulases ................ 79
     2.5.4  Multifunctional Hemicellulases? .................... 79
2.6  Lignin-Degrading Enzymes as Aids to Saccharification ...... 80
2.7  Commercial Choices of Cellulosic Feedstocks for Ethanol
     Production ................................................ 81
2.8  Biotechnology and Platform Technologies for Cellulosic
     Ethanol ................................................... 82
2.9  Summary ................................................... 83
References ..................................................... 83

Chapter 3  Microbiology of Cellulosic Ethanol Production I: 
           Yeasts .............................................. 91
3.1  Introduction .............................................. 91
3.2  Traditional Ethanologenic Yeasts .......................... 91
     3.2.1  Conventional Yeasts ................................ 92
     3.2.2  Nonconventional Yeasts ............................. 99
3.3  Metabolic Engineering of Yeasts for Cellulosic Ethanol ... 100
     3.3.1  Increased Pentose Utilization by Ethanologenic
            Yeasts by Genetic Manipulation with Yeast Genes 
            for Xylose Metabolism via Xylitol ................. 100
     3.3.2  Increased Pentose Utilization by Ethanologenic
            Yeasts by Genetic Manipulation with Genes for 
            Xylose Isomerization .............................. 106
     3.3.3  Engineering Arabinose Utilization by 
            Ethanologenic Yeasts .............................. 107
     3.3.4  Comparison of Industrial and Laboratory Yeast
            Strains for Ethanol Production .................... 109
     3.3.5  Improved Ethanol Production by Naturally
            Pentose-Utilizing Yeasts .......................... 115
3.4  Toward the Perfect Yeast Ethanologen? .................... 116
     3.4.1  "Omic" Analyses of Yeast Metabolism during
            Ethanol Production ................................ 117
     3.4.2  Stress Responses in Yeast Ethanologens ............ 120
3.5  Summary .................................................. 121
References .................................................... 122

Chapter 4  Microbiology of Cellulosic Ethanol Production II:
           Bacteria ........................................... 131
4.1  Introduction ............................................. 131
4.2  Assembling Gene Arrays in Bacteria for Ethanol
     Production ............................................... 131
     4.2.1  Metabolic Routes in Bacteria for Sugar
            Metabolism and Ethanol Formation .................. 132
     4.2.2  Genetic and Metabolic Engineering of Bacteria
            for Cellulosic Ethanol Production ................. 135
            4.2.2.1  Recombinant Escherichia coli: Lineages
                     and Metabolic Capabilities ............... 135
            4.2.2.2  Engineering Zymomonas mobilis for
                     Xylose and Arabinose Metabolism .......... 143
            4.2.2.3  Development of Klebsiella Strains for
                     Ethanol Production ....................... 146
            4.2.2.4  Other Bacterial Species .................. 148
4.3  Thermophilic Species and Cellulosome Bioproduction
     Technologies ............................................. 149
4.4  "Designer" Cells and Synthetic Organisms ................. 150
4.5  Summary .................................................. 151
References .................................................... 152

Chapter 5  Biochemical Engineering of Cellulosic Ethanol ...... 159
5.1  Introduction ............................................. 159
5.2  Case Study: The logen Corporation Process with Wheat
     Straw .................................................... 159
5.3  Biomass Substrate Pretreatment Strategies ................ 162
     5.3.1  Wheat Straw ....................................... 163
     5.3.2  Switchgrass ....................................... 165
     5.3.3  Corn Stover ....................................... 166
     5.3.4  Softwoods ......................................... 170
     5.3.5  Sugarcane Bagasse ................................. 173
     5.3.6  Other Large-Scale Agricultural and Forestry
            Biomass Feedstocks ................................ 174
5.4  Fermentation Media and the Very High Gravity Concept ..... 175
     5.4.1  Fermentation Media for Ethanol Production ......... 176
     5.4.2  High-Concentration Media Developed for Alcohol 
            Fermentations ..................................... 177
5.5  Fermentor Design and Novel Fermentor Technologies ........ 182
     5.5.1  Continuous Fermentations for Ethanol Production ... 182
     5.5.2  Fed-Batch Fermentations ........................... 187
     5.5.3  Immobilized Yeast and Bacterial Cell Production
            Designs ........................................... 189
     5.5.4  Contamination Events and Buildup in Fuel
            Ethanol Plants .................................... 192
5.6  Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation and 
     Consolidated Bioprocessing ............................... 192
5.7  Downstream Processing and By-Products .................... 196
     5.7.1  Ethanol Recovery from Fermented Broths ............ 196
     5.7.2  Continuous Ethanol Recovery from Fermentors ....... 198
     5.7.3  Solid By-Products from Ethanol Fermentations ...... 199
5.8  Summary .................................................. 202
References .................................................... 203

Chapter 6  The Economics of Fuel Ethanol ...................... 217
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 217
6.2  Market Forces and Incentives ............................. 217
     6.2.1  The Impact of Oil Prices on the Future of 
            Biofuels after 1980 ............................... 217
     6.2.2  Production Price, Taxation, and Incentives in
            the Market Economy ................................ 218
6.3  Cost Models for Fuel Ethanol Production .................. 221
     6.3.1  Early Benchmarking Studies of Corn and
            Lignocellulosic Ethanol in the United States ...... 222
            6.3.1.1  Corn-Derived Ethanol in 1978 ............. 222
            6.3.1.2  Wheat-Straw-Derived Ethanol in 1978 ...... 224
            6.3.1.3  Fuel Ethanol from Sugarcane Molasses ..... 226
            6.3.1.4  Farm-Scale Ethanol Production ............ 226
     6.3.2  Corn Ethanol in the 1980s: Rising Industrial
            Ethanol Prices and the Development of the
            Incentive Culture ................................. 228
     6.3.3  Western Europe in the Mid-1980s: Assessments of 
            Biofuels Programs Made at a Time of Falling Real
            Oil Prices ........................................ 231
     6.3.4  Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol in 1985: After the
            First Decade of the PROÁLCOOL Program to
            Substitute for Imported Oil ....................... 234
     6.3.5  Economics of U.S. Corn and Biomass Ethanol
            Economics in the Mid-1990s ........................ 234
     6.3.6  Case Study: The View from Sweden .................. 236
     6.3.7  Subsequent Assessments of Lignocellulosic
            Ethanol in Europe and the United States ........... 240
            6.3.7.1  Complete Process Cost Models ............. 240
            6.3.7.2  Reviews of "Gray" Literature
                     Estimates and Economic Analyses .......... 243
6.4  Pilot Plant and Industrial Extrapolations for 
     Cellulosic Ethanol ....................................... 245
     6.4.1  Near-Future Projections for Cellulosic Ethanol
            Production Costs .................................. 245
     6.4.2  Short- to Medium-Term Technical Process
            Improvements and Their Anticipated Economic
            Impacts ........................................... 246
     6.4.3  Bioprocess Economics: A Chinese Perspective ....... 250
6.5  Governmental and Macroeconomic Factors ................... 253
     6.5.1  Mandatory Biofuels Targets ........................ 253
     6.5.2  Impact of Fuel Economy on Ethanol Demand
            for Gasoline Blends ............................... 257
     6.5.3  Biofuels Pricing in the Era of Carbon Taxation .... 258
6.6  Summary .................................................. 259
References .................................................... 260

Chapter 7  Advanced Biofuels: The Widening Portfolio of
           Alternatives to Ethanol ............................ 265
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 265
7.2  Biobutanol and ABE ....................................... 265
7.3  Bacterial Production of C3-C7 Alcohols and Related
     Compounds ................................................ 268
7.4  Glycerol ................................................. 271
7.5  The MixAlco Process ...................................... 272
7.6  Biohydrogen .............................................. 273
     7.6.1  The Hydrogen Economy and Fuel Cell Technologies ... 273
     7.6.2  Bioproduction of Gases: Methane and H2 as
            Products of Anaerobic Digestion ................... 276
            7.6.2.1  Heterotrophic Microbes Producing H2
                     by Hydrogenase Activity .................. 277
            7.6.2.2  Nitrogen-Fixing Microorganisms ........... 280
            7.6.2.3  Development of "Dark" H2 Production
                     Systems .................................. 281
     7.6.3  Production of H2 by Photosynthetic Organisms ...... 284
7.7  Microbial Fuel Cells: Eliminating the Middlemen of
     Energy Carriers .......................................... 291
7.8  Summary .................................................. 293
References .................................................... 293

Chapter 8  Chemically Produced Biofuels ....................... 301
8.1  Introduction ............................................. 301
8.2  Biodiesel: Chemistry and Production Processes ............ 301
     8.2.1  Vegetable Oils and Chemically Processed 
            Biofuels .......................................... 301
     8.2.2  Biodiesel Composition and Production Processes .... 303
     8.2.3  Biodiesel Economics ............................... 308
     8.2.4  Energetics of Biodiesel Production and Effects
            on Greenhouse Gas Emissions ....................... 311
     8.2.5  Case Study 1: Hydrogenated Plant Oils and "Green
            Diesel" ........................................... 315
     8.2.6  Case Study 2: Enzymes for Biodiesel Production .... 316
8.3  Fischer-Tropsch Diesel: Chemical Biomass-Liquid Fuel
     Transformations .......................................... 318
     8.3.1  The Renascence of an Old Chemistry for Biomass-
            Based Fuels? ...................................... 318
     8.3.2  Economics and Environmental Impacts of FT
            Diesel ............................................ 320
8.4  Biodiesel from Microalgae and Microbes ................... 322
     8.4.1  Marine and Aquatic Biotechnology .................. 322
     8.4.2  Microdiesel ....................................... 325
8.5  Chemical Conversions of Glycerol Produced by
     Fermentation ............................................. 326
8.6  Chemical Routes for the Production of Monooxygenated
     C6 Liquid Fuels from Biomass Carbohydrates ............... 327
8.7  Biomethanol and Biodimethylether ......................... 328
8.8  Chemistry and the Emergence of the Hydrogen Economy ...... 330
8.9  Summary .................................................. 333
References .................................................... 334

Chapter 9  Sustainability of Biofuels Production .............. 341
9.1  Introduction ............................................. 341
9.2  Delivering Biomass Feedstocks for Cellulosic Ethanol
     Production: The Logistics of a New Industry .............. 341
     9.2.1  Upstream Factors: Biomass Collection and 
            Delivery .......................................... 344
     9.2.2  Limitations Imposed by Land Availability and
            Land Use .......................................... 346
9.3  Sustainable Development and Biomass Production ........... 354
     9.3.1  Definitions, Semantics, and Analysis .............. 354
     9.3.2  Case Study: Sustainability of Brazilian
            Sugarcane Ethanol ................................. 360
     9.3.3  Future Horizons for Cane Sugar Ethanol ............ 365
9.4  Bioenergy Crops and Genetically Manipulated Plants ....... 367
     9.4.1  Engineering Resistance Traits for Biotic and 
            Abiotic Stresses .................................. 368
     9.4.2  Bioengineering Increased Crop Yield ............... 369
     9.4.3  Optimizing Traits for Energy Crops Intended
            for Biofuel Production ............................ 371
     9.4.4  Genetic Engineering of Dual-Use Food Plants
            and Dedicated Energy Crops ........................ 374
9.5  Summary .................................................. 376
References .................................................... 377

Chapter 10 Biofuels as Products of Integrated Bioprocesses
           (Biorefineries) .................................... 383
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 383
10.2 The Biorefinery Concept .................................. 383
10.3 Biorefinery Entry Routes ................................. 386
     10.3.1 Fermentation of Biomass-Derived Substrates ........ 387
     10.3.2 Biomass Gasification .............................. 390
10.4 Biorefinery Pivotal Products ............................. 392
     10.4.1 Case Study 1: Succinic Acid ....................... 395
     10.4.2 Case Study 2: Xylitol and Rare Sugars as Fine
            Chemicals ......................................... 400
     10.4.3 Case Study 3: Glycerol ............................ 403
10.5 Central Substrates and Biorefinery Flexibility ........... 405
10.6 When Will the Biobased Economy Be Possible and When 
     Will It Be Unavoidable? .................................. 407
10.7 Summary .................................................. 413
References .................................................... 413

Index ......................................................... 421


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