Rock failure mechanisms: explained and illustrated (London, 2010). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
Навигация

Архив выставки новых поступлений | Отечественные поступления | Иностранные поступления | Сиглы
ОбложкаRock failure mechanisms: explained and illustrated / [ed.] by Ch.Tang, J.A.Hudson. - London: Taylor & Francis, 2010. - xliii, 322 p.: ill. + 1 CD-ROM. - Ref.: p.309-319. - Ind.: p.321-322. - ISBN 978-0-415-49851-7
 

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ...................................................... xiii
Acknowledgements ............................................... xv
About the authors ............................................ xvii
List of figures ............................................... xix
List of tables ............................................. xxxvii
Explanatory notes ........................................... xxxix

1  Introduction ................................................. I
   1.1  The purpose of this book ................................ 1
   1.2  Why do things break? .................................... 1
   1.3  Rock failure in geological and recent history ........... 2
   1.4  Rock failure in present day engineering ................. 5
   1.5  The nature of rock—a natural material ................... 7
        1.5.1  Discontinuities .................................. 7
        1.5.2  Inhomogeneity .................................... 7
        1.5.3  Anisotropy ....................................... 8
        1.5.4  Inelasticity .................................... 10
   1.6  Numerical modelling of rock failure .................... 10
   1.7  The content of this book ............................... 11
2  Rock failure in uniaxial tension ............................ 13
   2.1  Introduction ........................................... 13
   2.2  Specimen simulation .................................... 15
   2.3  Numerical simulation results for the uniaxial tension 
        case ................................................... 16
   2.4  Further studies of simulated rock failure in uniaxial 
        tension ................................................ 22
3  Rock failure in indirect tension ............................ 29
   3.1  Generating a tensile stress through compressive 
        loading ................................................ 29
   3.2  Establishing the numerical simulation model for
        indirect tensile strength tests ........................ 30
   3.3  Numerical simulations of rock failure in indirect 
        tensile strength tests ................................. 32
        3.3.1  The disc test ................................... 32
               3.3.1.1  Stress distribution in the discs ....... 32
               3.3.1.2  Effect of the material properties of
                        the load-bearing strip on the disc
                        test ................................... 35
               3.3.1.3  Effect of load-bearing strip width on
                        disc test .............................. 36
               3.3.1.4  Effect of specimen size on the disc
                        test ................................... 40
        3.3.2  The plate test .................................. 41
        3.3.3  The ring test ................................... 42
               3.3.3.1  Stress distribution along the loading
                        diameter for ring specimens ............ 43
               3.3.3.2  Effect of hole diameter on the failure
                        pattern of ring specimens .............. 44
               3.3.3.3  Effect of hole diameter on the ring
                        test indirect tensile strength ......... 49
4  Rock failure in uniaxial compression ........................ 55
   4.1  Introduction ........................................... 55
   4.2  Numerical illustrations of rock failure in uniaxial 
        compression ............................................ 58
        4.2.1  Model description ............................... 58
        4.2.2  Numerical simulation results .................... 59
        4.2.3  Summary of the numerical simulation 
               observations .................................... 65
               4.2.3.1  The complete stress-strain curve ....... 65
               4.2.3.2  Acoustic emission (AE) events and 
                        their locations ........................ 67
               4.2.3.3  Stress distribution and failure-
                        induced stress redistribution .......... 68
   4.3  Rock failure modes in uniaxial compression ............. 69
   4.4  Factors affecting rock failure behaviour ............... 72
        4.4.1  Model description ............................... 73
        4.4.2  Effect of end constraint in terms of the
               Young's modulus of the loading platens .......... 73
        4.4.3  Effect of height to width ratio (slenderness)
               of the specimen ................................. 78
        4.4.4  Class I and Class II curves in uniaxial
               compression ..................................... 82
        4.4.5  The size effect ................................. 85
5  Confinement and shear ....................................... 89
   5.1  The effect of confinement .............................. 89
   5.2  Acoustic emission during shearing ...................... 95
   5.3  Biaxial loading ........................................ 97
6  Effect of heterogeneity on rock failure .................... 101
   6.1  Introduction .......................................... 101
   6.2  Heterogeneity-induced stress fluctuations ............. 102
        6.2.1  Discs subjected to diametral loading ........... 102
        6.2.2  Rock blocks under hydrostatic stress ........... 103
   6.3  Heterogeneity-related seismic patterns ................ 106
   6.4  Influence of heterogeneity on crack propagation 
        modes ................................................. 109
        6.4.1  Numerical specimen ............................. 109
        6.4.2  Numerical results and discussion ............... 110
   6.5  The influence of heterogeneity on the meso-scale ...... 114
        6.5.1  Digital image based modelling method ........... 115
        6.5.2  Numerical model based on the digital image ..... 115
        6.5.3  Simulation results for uniaxial compression .... 117
        6.5.4  Influence of interface strength ................ 118
7  The effect of rock anisotropy on rock failure .............. 121
   7.1  Introduction .......................................... 121
   7.2  Numerical models ...................................... 122
8  Loading, unloading and the Kaiser Effect ................... 129
   8.1  Introduction .......................................... 129
   8.2  Numerical simulation .................................. 130
9  Time dependency of rock failure ............................ 135
   9.1  Introduction .......................................... 135
   9.2  A constitutive model for the time-dependent behaviour
        of rocks .............................................. 137
   9.3  Illustrations of time-dependent micro-structural 
        damage ................................................ 138
        9.3.1  The creep test ................................. 138
        9.3.2  The relaxation test ............................ 141
   9.4  Degradation of building stones with time .............. 144
10 Coalescence of fractures ................................... 147
   10.1 Introduction .......................................... 147
   10.2 Modelling of crack growth from crack-like flaws in
        compression ........................................... 147
        10.2.1 An angled crack-like flaw ...................... 148
        10.2.2 Crack growth from an array of crack-like
               flaws .......................................... 158
               10.2.2.1 Wing crack growth from three flaw 
                        arrays ................................ 158
               10.2.2.2 Wing crack growth from randomly
                        distributed multi-flaws ............... 162
   10.3 Crack growth from a pore-like flaw in compression ..... 165
        10.3.1 Modelling crack growth from a single hole
               in specimens under compression ................. 166
               10.3.1.1 Crack growth from a single hole
                        in specimens of different width ....... 166
               10.3.1.2 Crack growth from a single hole
                        with different diameters .............. 167
               10.3.1.3 Modelling of crack growth from an 
                        array of holes in a specimen under
                        compression ........................... 172
11 Dynamic loading of rock .................................... 181
   11.1 Introduction .......................................... 181
   11.2 The simulation models ................................. 183
   11.3 Simulation demonstration .............................. 185
        11.3.1 Influence of heterogeneity on stress wave 
               propagation .................................... 185
        11.3.2 Influence of stress wave amplitude on the
               fracture process and failure pattern ........... 186
12 Rock failure and water flow ................................ 189
   12.1 Introduction .......................................... 189
   12.2 Rock failure under hydraulic pressure ................. 190
   12.3 Illustrations of fluid flow in heterogeneous 
        initially intact rock ................................. 193
        12.3.1  Evolution of flow paths ....................... 196
   12.4 Comparison with the rock degradation modelling
        by Yuan and Harrison (2005) ........................... 200
   12.5 Fluid flow in initially intact rock containing block
        inhomogeneities ....................................... 203
13 Rock failure induced by thermal stress ..................... 209
   13.1 Introduction .......................................... 209
   13.2 Thermally-induced rock failure ........................ 210
   13.3 Thermal cracking of a disc-ring model ................. 212
   13.4 Thermal cracking in models containing irregularly
        shaped inclusions ..................................... 215
14 Slope failure in rock masses ............................... 219
   14.1 Introduction .......................................... 219
   14.2 Strength reduction rule and determination of safety
        factor ................................................ 220
   14.3 A slope in a layered rock mass ........................ 223
   14.4 A slope in a jointed rock mass ........................ 225
   14.5 A slope in a jointed rock mass with differing joint 
        persistence ........................................... 228
15 The fracture process when cutting inhomogeneous rocks ...... 229
   15.1 Introduction .......................................... 229
   15.2 Modelling rock cutting and the failure mechanism ...... 229
        15.2.1 Quasi-photoelastic fringe pattern .............. 230
        15.2.2 Fracture pattern ............................... 231
        15.2.3 The chipping process ........................... 233
   15.3 The load-displacement response when cutting
        inhomogeneous rock .................................... 234
   15.4 The crushed zone during rock cutting .................. 236
16 Rock failure around tunnels in jointed rock ................ 237
   16.1 Introduction .......................................... 237
   16.2 Progressive failure around a tunnel in a jointed 
        rock mass ............................................. 238
        16.2.1 Effect of dip angles on the stability of the 
               tunnel ......................................... 239
        16.2.2 The effect of the lateral stress on the mode
               of tunnel failure .............................. 243
        16.2.3 Displacements at the tunnel periphery .......... 247
17 Rock failure induced by longwall coal mining ............... 249
   17.1 Introduction .......................................... 249
   17.2 Illustrations of longwall mining simulations .......... 250
   17.3 The Daliuta coal mine in China ........................ 255
        17.3.1 The strata failure process ..................... 256
        17.3.2 Pillar stresses ................................ 258
18 Gas outbursts in coal mines ................................ 263
   18.1 Introduction .......................................... 263
   18.2 Outbursts induced by cross-cutting from rock to coal
        seam .................................................. 266
   18.3 Outburst as the working face approaches high methane
        pressure in the coal seam ............................. 269
19 Particle breakage and comminution .......................... 273
   19.1 Introduction .......................................... 273
   19.2 Single particle breakage .............................. 274
        19.2.1 Breakage of single particle under diametral 
               loading without confinement .................... 274
        19.2.2 Breakage of single particle under diametral
               loading with confinement ....................... 276
   19.3 Multiple particle breakage ............................ 284
        19.3.1 Fragmentation process of a rock particle 
               assemblage in a container ...................... 285
        19.3.2 Force and displacement relation during the
               breakage process ............................... 287
        19.3.3 Energy considerations .......................... 290
        19.3.4 Size distribution .............................. 292
        19.3.5 Influence of particle shape .................... 293
20 3-D modelling and ‘turtle crack formation’ in rock ......... 297
   20.1 Introduction .......................................... 297
   20.2 The three-layer model ................................. 298
   20.3 Fracture spacing measurements ......................... 303
21 Concluding remarks ......................................... 307
   
References and bibliography ................................... 309
Index ......................................................... 321


Архив выставки новых поступлений | Отечественные поступления | Иностранные поступления | Сиглы
 

[О библиотеке | Академгородок | Новости | Выставки | Ресурсы | Библиография | Партнеры | ИнфоЛоция | Поиск | English]
  Пожелания и письма: branch@gpntbsib.ru
© 1997-2020 Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН (Новосибирск)
Статистика доступов: архив | текущая статистика
 

Документ изменен: Wed Feb 27 14:24:24 2019. Размер: 17,882 bytes.
Посещение N 970 c 04.12.2012