Sarkisyan A.S. Modelling ocean climate variability (New York, 2009). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаSarkisyan A.S. Modelling ocean climate variability / A.S.Sarkisyan, J.E.Sündermann. - New York: Springer, 2009. - 374 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.371-374. - ISBN 978-1-4020-9207-7
 

Оглавление / Contents
 
1  Mathematical Background and Methods of Ocean Modelling ....... 1
   1.1  Classical Problems of Marine Dynamics: Equations,
        Initial and Boundary Conditions ......................... 2
        1.1.1  Equations, Initial and Boundary Conditions of
               Ocean and Sea General Circulation ................ 2
        1.1.2  Some Comments on the Boundary Conditions ......... 5
        1.1.3  Some Comments on the Initial Conditions .......... 6
        1.1.4  Total Energy Conservation ........................ 6
        1.1.5  Parameterization of Subscale Physical
               Processes ........................................ 7
   1.2  Solvability of Ocean/Sea Dynamics Problems .............. 8
        1.2.1  Linear Model of Small Oscillations in the Ocean
               with Stable Stratification ....................... 8
        1.2.2  Linear Stationary Model of Ocean Dynamics With
               Turbulent Exchange Parameterization .............. 9
        1.2.3  Prognostic Nonlinear Problem of Ocean General
               Circulation ..................................... 10
        1.2.4  Prognostic Nonlinear Problem of Ocean General
               Circulation With Parameterization of Deep
               Convection ...................................... 11
   1.3  Alternative and Generalized Models of the General
        Circulation in Oceans and Shelf Seas ................... 12
        1.3.1  Model Based on the Nonlinear Shallow-Water
               Equations ....................................... 12
        1.3.2  Ocean General Circulation Model in the σ -
               Coordinate System ............................... 13
        1.3.3  Generalized Model of Sea Dynamics With a Free
               Surface in the σ-Coordinate System .............. 15
   1.4  Numerical Methods ...................................... 16
        1.4.1  The Choice of a Differential Formulation of
               the Problem ..................................... 17
        1.4.2  Methods of Spatial Approximation ................ 18
        1.4.3  Methods for Discrete Time Integration ........... 20
        1.4.4  The Method of Weak Approximation (Splitting of
               the Differential Problem) ....................... 21
   1.5  Forward and Adjoint Models ............................. 22
        1.5.1  Data Assimilation Problem ....................... 22
        1.5.2  Initialization Problem .......................... 24
   1.6  Advances and Trends in Mathematical Modelling of
   Marine and Oceanic Currents ................................. 26
   References .................................................. 27
2  Simple Linear Models for Diagnostic Calculation of Ocean
   Climate Characteristics ..................................... 31
   2.1  Basic Equations ........................................ 31
   2.2  Simple Diagnostic Models for Ocean Characteristics
        Calculation ............................................ 32
        2.2.1  Geostrophic Flow ................................ 32
        2.2.2  Simple Linear Model for Diagnostic Calculation
               in the Ocean Equatorial Region (The Model D1) ... 34
        2.2.3  Simple Linear Model for Diagnostic
               Calculations in the Ocean Extraequatorial
               Regions (The Model D1') ......................... 40
        2.2.4  Final Formulation, Comparison and Qualitative
               Analysis of Models D1 and D1' ................... 47
        2.2.5  Simple Linear Model for Diagnostic
               Calculations by Using Mass Transport Stream
               Function (The Model D1'') ....................... 51
   2.3  Are The Sverdrup Relation and the Dynamic (Reference-
        Level) Method Still Up-To-Date? ........................ 53
        2.3.1  Westward, Equatorward, Coastward and Other
               Kinds of Intensifications in Baroclinic Basins
               with Variable Depth ............................. 53
        2.3.2  Contradiction Between the Dynamic (Reference
               Level) Method and the Sverdrup Relation ......... 56
        2.3.3  A Short Note on the Ocean Modelling First
               Steps ........................................... 60
        2.3.4  Brief List of the Main Results of Diagnostic
               Calculations .................................... 63
   References .................................................. 55
3  Nonlinear Models for Diagnostic, Prognostic and Adjustment
   Calculations of Ocean Climate Characteristics ............... 67
   3.1  Nonlinear Models Based on Sea Surface Height
        Calculations ........................................... 67
        3.1.1  The Equation of Vorticity ....................... 67
        3.1.2  The Divergence Equation ......................... 70
   3.2  Nonlinear Extraequatorial Model Based on the Mass
        Transport Stream Function Calculation .................. 71
   3.3  Quasianalytical Version of One Nonlinear Model ......... 76
   3.4  Comments on Different Approaches and Different
        Integral Equations Used in Ocean Modelling ............. 80
   3.5  A Brief Analysis of Prognostic Calculations ............ 85
   3.6  On the Intercalibration of Models ...................... 95
   References .................................................. 99
4  Synthesis of Models and Observed Data ...................... 103
   4.1  Energetics of Ocean's Hydrophysical Characteristics
        Mutual Adjusting Processes ............................ 103
        4.1.1  Introduction ................................... 103
        4.1.2  Characteristics of the Model and Numerical
               Experiments .................................... 104
        4.1.3  Results of Adjustment Calculation .............. 110
   4.2  Ocean Modelling Experiments by General Adjustment
        (OMEGA) ............................................... 116
   4.3  Hydrodynamic Method for WOCE Data Processing and
        Assimilation .......................................... 118
        4.3.1  Synthesis of Model and Observation Data ........ 118
        4.3.2  Results of Experiments ......................... 119
        4.3.3  Computation Results ............................ 120
        4.3.4  Discussion and Conclusions ..................... 124
   4.4  Four-Dimensional Analysis of Hydrophysical Ocean and
        Sea Fields ............................................ 127
        4.4.1  Introduction ................................... 127
        4.4.2  Differential Equations and the Kaiman Filter ... 128
        4.4.3  Synchronization and Monitoring of
               Hydrophysical Fields in the Newfoundland
               Energy Active Zone ............................. 132
        4.4.4  Numerical Experiments on the Estimation
               Accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Analysis
               Procedure ...................................... 135
        4.4.5  Four-Dimensional Analysis of Hydrophysical
               Fields in the Tropical Atlantic ................ 140
        4.4.6  Algorithm for Altimeter Data Assimilation:
               Numerical Experiments and Some
               Reconstructions of Hydrophysical Fields in the
               Black Sea from TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimetry ........ 143
   References ................................................. l49
5  Modelling of Climate Variability in Selected Ocean
   Basins ..................................................... 153
   5.1  Numerical Simulation of in the Arctic-North Atlantic
        System ................................................ 153
        5.1.1  Introduction ................................... 153
        5.1.2  Sea-Ice Dynamics ............................... 155
        5.1.3  Simulation of the Coupled Arctic Ocean-North
               Atlantic Circulation System .................... 161
        5.1.4  Numerical Simulation of Tracer Propagation ..... 163
        5.1.5  Propagation of Fresh Water from Siberian
               Rivers and Pacific Waters of the Bering
               Straits ........................................ 164
        5.1.6  Conclusions .................................... 169
        5.1.7  Latest Results of Arctic Ocean Modelling and
               Intercomparison Project (AOMIP) ................ 170
   5.2  The Gulf Stream ....................................... 175
        5.2.1  Modelling the Gulf Stream in the DYNAMO
               Experiment ..................................... 175
        5.2.2  Crossing the Rubicon in Modelling the North
               Atlantic Dynamics .............................. 178
   5.3  Pacific Ocean Circulation and Tracer Transport
        Modelling ............................................. 186
        5.3.1  Water Circulation Modelling .................... 186
        5.3.2  Numerical Modelling of Tracer Spreading in
               the North Pacific Ocean ........................ 194
   5.4  The Indian Ocean ...................................... 201
        5.4.1  The Indian Ocean Descriptive
               Hydrometeorology ............................... 201
        5.4.2  Indian Ocean Climate Variability Modelling ..... 208
   References ................................................. 219
6  Modelling Climate Variability of Selected Shelf Seas ....... 225
   6.1  The North Sea ......................................... 225
        6.1.1  Introduction ................................... 225
        6.1.2  Special Features of North Sea Modelling ........ 227
        6.1.3  Example of a Realistic Simulation: The
               Variable Heat Budget of the North Sea .......... 232
   6.2  The White Sea ......................................... 234
        6.2.1  Introduction ................................... 234
        6.2.2  Y. Semenov's Model ............................. 235
        6.2.3  The Results of Calculations .................... 241
   6.3  The Caspian Sea ....................................... 245
        6.3.1  Introduction ................................... 245
        6.3.2  Model Description .............................. 250
        6.3.3  External Forcing ............................... 255
        6.3.4  Seasonal Variability of the Caspian Sea
               Dynamics ....................................... 261
        6.3.5  Sensitivity Experiments ........................ 275
        6.3.6  Summary and Conclusions ........................ 279
   6.4  The Black Sea ......................................... 280
        6.4.1  The Black Sea Descriptive Hydrophysics ......... 280
        6.4.2  Modelling the Variability of Black Sea
               Physical Characteristics ....................... 291
        6.4.3  Modelling the Seasonal Variability of Black
               Sea Climatic Characteristics by Means of
               Four-Dimensional Analysis ...................... 301
        6.4.4  Data Assimilation by the Method of Double
               Correction ..................................... 313
        References ............................................ 332
Color Plate Section ........................................... 339
Index ......................................................... 371


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