Shimomura O. Bioluminescence: chemical principles and methods (Singapore; Hackensack, 2006). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаShimomura O. Bioluminescence: chemical principles and methods. - Singapore; Hackensack: World Scientific, 2006. - xxvii, 470 p.: ill. (some col.). - Ref.: p.379-454. - Ind.: p.455-470. - ISBN 981-256-801-8
 

Место хранения: 040 | Институт биофизики СО РАН | Красноярск | Библиотека

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ......................................................... v
Abbreviations, Symbols and Definitions ......................... xv
Introduction ................................................. xvii
   The Beginning of the Chemical Study of Bioluminescence ..... xix
   Luciferin ................................................... xx
   Photoprotein ............................................... xxi
   Chemical Studies on Bioluminescence in the Last One
   Hundred Years ............................................. xxii
   Chemical Study of Bioluminescence in the Future ........... xxiv
   The Contents of this Book ................................. xxvi
1  The Fireflies and Luminous Insects ........................... 1
   1.1  The Fireflies ........................................... 3
        1.1.1  Essential Factors in the Firefly Luminescence
               Reaction ......................................... 3
        1.1.2  Firefly Luciferin and Oxyluciferin ............... 5
        1.1.3  Firefly Luciferase ............................... 8
        1.1.4  Assays of Luciferase Activity, ATP and
               Luciferin ....................................... 11
        1.1.5  General Characteristics of the Bioluminescence
               of Fireflies .................................... 12
        1.1.6  Mechanisms of the Bioluminescence ............... 15
        1.1.7  Light Emitters in the Firefly Luminescence
               System .......................................... 17
        1.1.8  A Note on the Dioxetanone Pathway and the
               18O-incorporation Experiment .................... 19
   1.2  Phengodidae and Elateroidae ............................ 23
        1.2.1  Phengodidae ..................................... 24
        1.2.2  Elateridae ...................................... 24
   1.3  Diptera ................................................ 25
        1.3.1  The Glow-worm Arachnocampa ...................... 25
        1.3.2  The American Glow-worm Orfelia .................. 27
2  Luminous Bacteria ........................................... 30
   2.1  Factors Required for Bioluminescence ................... 31
   2.2  Bacterial Luciferase ................................... 33
   2.3  Long-chain Aldehyde .................................... 35
   2.4  Mechanism of Luminescence Reaction ..................... 37
   2.5  Assay of Luciferase Activity ........................... 39
   2.6  Quantum Yield of Long-chain Aldehydes .................. 41
   2.7  In vivo Luminescence of Luminous Bacteria .............. 41
3  The Ostracod Cypridina (Vargula) and Other Luminous
   Crustaceans ................................................. 47
   3.1  The Ostracod Cypridina ................................. 49
        3.1.1  Overview of Ostracoda ........................... 49
        3.1.2  Cypridina hilgendorfii Müller ................... 51
        3.1.3  Research on Cypridina Luminescence before
               1955 ............................................ 53
        3.1.4  Purification and Crystallization of Cypridina
               Luciferin ....................................... 55
        3.1.5  Properties of Cypridina Luciferin ............... 58
        3.1.6  Oxyluciferin and Etioluciferin .................. 62
        3.1.7  Purification and Molecular Properties of
               Cypridina Luciferase ............................ 62
        3.1.8  Luciferin-luciferase Luminescence Reaction ...... 64
        3.1.9  Quantum Yield ................................... 69
   3.2  Euphausiids Euphausia pacifica and Meganyctiphanes
        norvegica .............................................. 71
        3.2.1  Involvement of the Fluorescent Compound F
               and Protein P ................................... 71
        3.2.2  Fluorescent Compound F .......................... 74
        3.2.3  Protein P ....................................... 79
        3.2.4  Luminescence Reaction ........................... 80
   3.3  The Decapod Shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris ........... 82
        3.3.1  Oplophorus Luciferase ........................... 82
        3.3.2  Coelenterazine-luciferase Reaction .............. 83
   3.4  Copepoda ............................................... 88
4  The Jellyfish Aequorea and Other Luminous Coelenterates ..... 90
   4.1  The Hydrozoan Medusa Aequorea aequorea ................. 92
        4.1.1  History of the Biochemical Study of Aequorea
               Bioluminescence ................................. 94
        4.1.2  Extraction and Purification of Aequorin ......... 95
        4.1.3  Properties of Aequorin ......................... 100
        4.1.4  Discovery of the Coelenterazine Moiety in
               Aequorin ....................................... 111
        4.1.5  Regeneration of Aequorin from Apoaequorin ...... 113
        4.1.6  Recombinant Aequorin ........................... 116
        4.1.7  Semisynthetic Aequorins ........................ 118
        4.1.8  The In Vivo Luminescence of Aequorea ........... 129
   4.2  The Hydroid Obelia (Hydrozoan) ........................ 133
        4.2.1  Natural Obelins ................................ 133
        4.2.2  Recombinant Obelin ............................. 134
   4.3  The Hydrozoan Medusa Phialidium gregarium ............. 137
   4.4  Other Bioluminescent Нуdrozoans ....................... 138
   4.5  The Scyphozoans Pelagia and Periphylla ................ 140
        4.5.1  Pelagia noctiluca .............................. 140
        4.5.2  Periphylla periphylla .......................... 140
   4.6  The Anthozoan Renilla (Sea Pansy) ..................... 147
   4.7  Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) ....................... 151
   4.8  The Ctenophores ....................................... 154
5  The Coelenterazines ........................................ 159
   5.1  Discovery of Coelenterazine ........................... 159
   5.2  Occurrence of Coelenterazine .......................... 160
   5.3  Properties of Coelenterazine and its Derivatives ...... 165
   5.4  Chemi- and Bioluminescence Reactions of
        Coelenterazine ........................................ 168
   5.5  Chemical Reactions of Coelenterazine .................. 173
   5.6  Synthesis of Coelenterazines .......................... 176
   5.7  Coelenterazine Luciferases ............................ 176
6  Luminous Mollusca .......................................... 180
   6.1  The Limpet Latia ...................................... 182
   6.2  The Clam Pholas dactylus .............................. 192
   6.3  Luminous Squids (Cephalopoda) ......................... 199
        6.3.1  The Firefly Squid Watasenia scintillans ........ 200
        6.3.2  The Purpleback Flying Squid Symplectoteuthis
               oualaniensis (Tobi-ika) ........................ 204
        6.3.3  The Luminous Flying Squid Symplectoteuthis
               luminosa (Suji-ika) ............................ 210
7  Annelida ................................................... 216
   7.1  The Tubeworm Chaetopterus variopedatus ................ 216
        7.1.1  Biochemistry of the Luminescence of
               Chaetopterus variopedatus ...................... 218
        7.1.2  Properties of the Chaetopterus Photoprotein
               and its Luminescence Reaction .................. 221
   7.2  The Bermuda Fireworm Odontosyllis ..................... 225
   7.3  Luminous Earthworms (Oligochaeta) ..................... 234
   7.4  Polynoid Scaleworm Harmothoë lunulata ................. 242
   7.5  The Polychaete Tomopteris ............................. 246
8  Dinoflagellates and Other Protozoa ......................... 248
   8.1 Radiolarians ........................................... 248
   8.2  Dinoflagellates ....................................... 249
        8.2.1  Cultivation and Harvesting of
               Dinoflagellates ................................ 251
        8.2.2  Scintillons .................................... 251
        8.2.3  The Luciferase of Gonyaulax polyedra ........... 252
        8.2.4  Extraction and Purification of Dinoflagellate
               Luciferin ...................................... 256
        8.2.5  Properties of Dinoflagellate Luciferin ......... 258
        8.2.6  Chemical Structures of Dinoflagellate
               Luciferin and its Oxidation Products ........... 260
        8.2.7  Chemical Mechanism of Dinoflagellate
               Bioluminescence ................................ 263
        8.2.8  Luciferin Binding Protein of Dinoflagellates ... 264
9  Luminous Fungi ............................................. 266
   9.1  An Overview on Fungal Bioluminescence ................. 266
   9.2  Early Studies on the Biochemistry of Luminous Fungi ... 268
   9.3  Role of Superoxide in Fungal Luminescence ............. 271
   9.4  Studies on Panellus stipticus ......................... 275
        9.4.1  Panal .......................................... 277
        9.4.2  Activation Products of Panal ................... 279
        9.4.3  PS-A and PS-B .................................. 282
        9.4.4  Activation of PS-A and PS-B .................... 283
        9.4.5  Mechanism of the in vivo Bioluminescence of
               P. stipticus ................................... 289
        9.4.6  Synthetic Studies of Panellus Luciferin ........ 291
   9.5  Studies on Mycena citricolor .......................... 294
        9.5.1  Luciferin Obtained by Kuwabara and Wassink ..... 294
        9.5.2  Studies on the Mycena citricolor Luminescence
               by the Author .................................. 294
   9.6  Summary on the Chemistry of Fungal Luminescence ....... 298
10 Other Luminous Organisms ................................... 301
   10.1 Ophiuroidea: Brittle Stars ............................ 301
        10.1.1 The Brittle Star Ophiopsila californica ........ 302
        10.1.2 The Brittle Star Amphiura filiformis ........... 307
   10.2 Millipede Luminodesmus sequoiae (Diplopoda) ........... 307
   10.3 Centipede Orpbaneus brevilabiatus (Chilopoda) ......... 314
   10.4 Hemicordata ........................................... 315
        10.4.1 The Acorn Worm Balanoglossus biminiensis ....... 315
        10.4.2 The Luciferin of Ptychodera flava .............. 318
   10.5 Tunicates (Phylum Chordata) ........................... 319
   10.6 The Luminous Fishes ................................... 322
        10.6.1 Coastal and Shallow-water Fishes that Utilize
               Cypridina Luciferin ............................ 323
        10.6.2 Oceanic Deep-sea Luminous Fishes ............... 327
        10.6.3 Future Research on Fish Bioluminescence ........ 330

Appendix ...................................................... 333
A  Taxonomic Classification of Selected Luminous Organisms .... 333
В  Lists of Luciferins, Luciferases and Photoproteins
   Isolated ................................................... 340
С  Miscellaneous Technical Information ........................ 349
   C1  Basic Principle of the Isolation of Bioluminescent
       Substances ............................................. 349
       С1.1 Reversible Inhibition of Bioluminescence .......... 350
       С1.2 Extraction of Luciferin-luciferase Systems ........ 353
       C1.3 Solubilization of Proteins ........................ 353
       C1.4 Purification ...................................... 355
   C2  Storage of Samples ..................................... 356
   C3  Measurement of Luminescence ............................ 360
   C4  Calibration of Luminometer and the Measurement of
       Quantum Yield .......................................... 361
   C5  Measurements of Coelenterazine, its Derivatives, and
       other Important Substances in Bioluminescence .......... 363
       C5.1 Assay of Coelenterazine ........................... 363
       C5.2 Assay of the Coelenterazine Luciferase Activity ... 364
       C5.3 Assay of the Stabilized Forms of Coelenterazine ... 365
       C5.4 Assay of Dehydrocoelenterazine .................... 366
       C5.5 Assay of Cypridina Luciferin ...................... 366
       C5.6 Assay of Cypridina Luciferase ..................... 367
       C5.7 Assay of Ca2+-sensitive Photoproteins ............. 368
       C5.8 Measuring Bioluminescence in the Field ............ 369
   C6  18O-Labeling of the Reaction Product CO2 ............... 370
   C7  Glass Blowing .......................................... 374
D  Advice to Students Who are Interested in Studying the
   Chemistry of Bioluminescence ............................... 375

References .................................................... 379
Index ......................................................... 455


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