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ОбложкаAncheyta J. Modeling of processes and reactors for upgrading of heavy petroleum. - Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2013. - xxiii, 537 p.: ill., tab. - (Chemical industries; 136). - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.525-537. - ISBN 978-1-4398-8045-6
Шифр: (И/Л5-А53) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ...................................................... xvii
Acknowledgments ............................................... xxi
Author ...................................................... xxiii

PART I  Properties and Upgrading of Heavy Oils

Chapter 1  Heavy Petroleum ...................................... 3
1.1  Definition ................................................. 3
1.2  Classification ............................................. 4
1.3  Properties ................................................. 5
     1.3.1  Physical and Chemical Properties .................... 5
     1.3.2  Asphaltenes ......................................... 6
     1.3.3  Chemical Characterization of Asphaltenes ............ 9
       1.3.3.1  Experimental.................................... 11
       1.3.3.2  Results ........................................ 12
     1.3.4  Tendency to Coke Formation ......................... 16
     1.3.5  Viscosity .......................................... 17
       1.3.5.1  Viscosity of Crude Oils ........................ 17
       1.3.5.2  Viscosity of Blends of Crude Oils .............. 17
       1.3.5.3  Other Properties ............................... 25
     1.3.6  Stability and Compatibility ........................ 27
       1.3.6.1  Definitions .................................... 27
       1.3.6.2  Analytical Methods ............................. 28
1.4  Assay of Heavy Petroleum .................................. 31
     1.4.1  Definition ......................................... 31
     1.4.2  Applications ....................................... 32
     1.4.3  Types of Assays .................................... 32
     1.4.4  Examples of Assays of Heavy Crude Oils ............. 33
1.5  Problems during Upgrading and Refining of Heavy
     Petroleum ................................................. 34
     References ................................................ 41

Chapter 2  Technologies for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum ....... 45
2.1  General Classification .................................... 45
2.2  Current Situation of Residue Upgrading .................... 48
2.3  Hydrogen Addition Technologies ............................ 49
     2.3.1  Hydrovisbreaking ................................... 50
     2.3.2  Fixed-Bed Hydroprocessing .......................... 50
     2.3.3  Moving-Bed Hydroprocessing ......................... 51
     2.3.4  Ebullated-Bed Hydroprocessing ...................... 52
     2.3.5  Slurry-Bed Hydroprocessing ......................... 52
2.4  Carbon Rejection Technologies ............................. 54
     2.4.1  Solvent Deasphalting ............................... 55
     2.4.2  Gasification ....................................... 55
     2.4.3  Coking ............................................. 55
     2.4.4  Visbreaking ........................................ 55
     2.4.5  Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking ................... 56
2.5  Emerging Technologies ..................................... 56
2.6  Combination of Upgrading Technologies ..................... 57
     2.6.1  Combination of Carbon Rejection Technologies ....... 57
     2.6.2  Combination of Hydrogen Addition Technologies ...... 62
     2.6.3  Combination of Both Hydrogen Addition and Carbon
            Rejection Technologies ............................. 63
     References ................................................ 67

PART II  Modeling of Noncatalytic Processes

Chapter 3  Modeling of Visbreaking ............................. 73
3.1  Introduction .............................................. 73
3.2  Process Description ....................................... 74
3.3  Types of Visbreaking ...................................... 75
     3.3.1  Coil Visbreaking ................................... 75
     3.3.2  Soaker Visbreaking ................................. 76
     3.3.3  Differences ........................................ 76
3.4  Process Variables ......................................... 77
     3.4.1  Feed Properties .................................... 77
     3.4.2  Temperature ........................................ 78
     3.4.3  Pressure ........................................... 78
     3.4.4  Residence Time ..................................... 79
     3.4.5  Steam Injection .................................... 79
     3.4.6  Main Process Variables ............................. 79
3.5  Chemistry ................................................. 80
     3.5.1  C-C Bond Scission .................................. 81
     3.5.2  Dehydrogenation .................................... 81
     3.5.3  Isomerization ...................................... 81
     3.5.4  Polymerization/Condensation ........................ 81
     3.5.5  Reactions Involving Heteroatoms .................... 81
3.6  Kinetics .................................................. 81
3.7  Reactor Modeling .......................................... 85
     3.7.1  Correlations ....................................... 85
     3.7.2  Reactor Model ...................................... 86
       3.7.2.1  General Aspects of Coil and Soaker Reactors .... 86
       3.7.2.2  Modeling Coil and Soaker Reactors .............. 86
     3.7.3  Simulation of the Visbreaker ....................... 92
       3.7.3.1  Reactor Characteristics and Operating
                Conditions ..................................... 92
       3.7.3.2  Feed and Product Properties .................... 93
       3.7.3.3  Results ........................................ 93
       3.7.3.4  Final Remarks and Recommendations .............. 97
     Nomenclature .............................................. 99
     Greek Letters ............................................ 100
     References ............................................... 100

Chapter 4  Modeling of Gasification ........................... 103
4.1  Introduction ............................................. 103
4.2  Types of Gasifiers ....................................... 104
     4.2.1  Moving-Bed Gasifiers .............................. 104
       4.2.1.1  Countercurrent Fixed-Bed ...................... 104
       4.2.1.2  Co-Current Fixed-Bed .......................... 104
     4.2.2  Fluidized-Bed Gasifiers ........................... 105
     4.2.3  Entrained-Flow Gasifier ........................... 105
     4.2.4  Others ............................................ 106
4.3  Process Variables ........................................ 106
     4.3.1  Temperature ....................................... 106
     4.3.2  Pressure .......................................... 107
     4.3.3  Fluidization Velocity ............................. 107
     4.3.4  Air/Steam Ratio ................................... 107
     4.3.5  Equivalence Ratio ................................. 107
     4.3.6  Particle Size ..................................... 107
4.4  Process Description ...................................... 107
4.5  Chemistry and Thermodynamics ............................. 108
4.6  Modeling of the Gasifier ................................. 110
     4.6.1  Model Equations ................................... 111
       4.6.1.1  Mass Balance .................................. 111
       4.6.1.2  Thermodynamic Equilibrium ..................... 114
       4.6.1.3  Energy Balance ................................ 119
       4.6.1.4  Heating Value of Synthesis Gas and
                Gasification Efficiency ....................... 121
     4.6.2  Model Solution .................................... 122
4.7  Simulation of the Gasifier ............................... 123
     4.7.1  Validation of the Model ........................... 123
     4.7.2  Effect of Reaction Conditions ..................... 125
       4.7.2.1  Effect of Pressure ............................ 125
       4.7.2.2  Effect of Temperature ......................... 127
       4.7.2.3  Effect of Oxygen-to-Vacuum Residue Ratio ...... 127
       4.7.2.4  Effect of Water-to-Vacuum Residue Ratio ....... 129
     4.7.3  Application of the Model .......................... 130
       4.7.3.1  Simulation with Different Vacuum Residues as
                Feedstock ..................................... 130
       4.7.3.2  Simulation of the Production of Hydrogen ...... 132
     References ............................................... 133

Chapter 5  Modeling of Coking ................................. 135
5.1  Introduction ............................................. 135
5.2  Coking Processes ......................................... 136
     5.2.1  Delayed Coking .................................... 136
     5.2.2  Fluid-Coking ...................................... 138
     5.2.3  Flexi-Coking ...................................... 138
5.3  Process Description ...................................... 139
5.4  Process Variables ........................................ 141
     5.4.1  Furnace Outlet Temperature/Coke Drum Inlet
            Temperature ....................................... 141
     5.4.2  Coke Drum Pressure ................................ 142
     5.4.3  Combined Feed Ratio ............................... 142
     5.4.4  Type of Feed ...................................... 143
5.5  Fundamentals of Coking ................................... 143
     5.5.1  Chemistry ......................................... 143
     5.5.2  Kinetics .......................................... 145
     5.5.3  Thermal Decomposition of Asphaltenes .............. 145
5.6  Kinetics of Coking ....................................... 147
     5.6.1  Fractionation of Atmospheric Residue .............. 147
     5.6.2  Non-Isothermal Kinetics ........................... 148
     5.6.3  Thermal Decomposition ............................. 149
     5.6.4  Kinetic Parameters ................................ 152
     5.6.5  Remarks ........................................... 154
5.7  Correlations to Predict Coking Yields .................... 156
     5.7.1  Correlations ...................................... 156
       5.7.1.1  Correlations of Gary and Handwerk (2001) ...... 156
       5.7.1.2  Correlations of Maples (1993) ................. 158
       5.7.1.3  Correlations of Schabron and Speight (1997) ... 160
       5.7.1.4  Correlations of Castiglioni (1983) ............ 161
       5.7.1.5  Correlations of Smith et al. (2006) ........... 164
       5.7.1.6  Correlations of Volk et al. (2002) ............ 164
     5.7.2  Application of the Correlations ................... 166
       5.7.2.1  Effect of Feed Properties ..................... 166
       5.7.2.2  Effect of Pressure ............................ 168
       5.7.2.3  Effect of Temperature ......................... 168
     5.7.3  Final Remarks ..................................... 169
     Nomenclature ............................................. 171
     References ............................................... 171

Chapter 6  Noncatalytic (Thermal) Hydrotreating ............... 175
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 175
6.2  Experimental ............................................. 177
     6.2.1  Crude Oils and Residua ............................ 177
     6.2.2  Experimental Setup ................................ 177
     6.2.3  Reaction Conditions ............................... 179
     6.2.4  Analytic Techniques ............................... 180
6.3  Results and Discussion ................................... 180
     6.3.1  Two-Reactor Unit .................................. 180
       6.3.1.1  Noncatalytic Hydrodesulfurization ............. 180
       6.3.1.2  Selectivity toward NHDS and NHDM .............. 183
       6.3.1.3  Effect on the API Gravity ..................... 184
       6.3.1.4  Effect on Distillation Curves ................. 185
       6.3.1.5  Effect on Liquid Product Composition .......... 185
       6.3.1.6  Profiles of Axial Temperature ................. 188
     6.3.2  One-Reactor Unit .................................. 190
       6.3.2.1  Kinetics of NHDS and NHDM ..................... 190
       6.3.2.2  Kinetics of Vacuum Residue Conversion ......... 192
       6.3.2.3  Kinetics of Noncatalytic Hydrocracking ........ 194
     Nomenclature ............................................. 198
     Subscripts ............................................... 199
     References ............................................... 199

PART III  Modeling of Catalytic Processes

Chapter 7  Modeling of Catalytic Hydroprocessing .............. 203
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 203
     7.1.1  Importance of Hydrotreating in Petroleum
            Refining .......................................... 203
     7.1.2  Current Situation ................................. 206
7.2  Process Description ...................................... 208
7.3  Types of Reactors ........................................ 210
     7.3.1  Fixed-Bed Reactors ................................ 210
       7.3.1.1  Quenching in FBRs ............................. 213
       7.3.1.2  Reactor Internals ............................. 214
     7.3.2  Moving-Bed Reactors ............................... 216
     7.3.3  Ebullated-Bed Reactors ............................ 217
     7.3.4  Slurry-Phase Reactors ............................. 219
7.4  Fundamentals ............................................. 219
     7.4.1  Chemistry ......................................... 219
       7.4.1.1  Hydrodesulfurization .......................... 220
       7.4.1.2  Hydrodenitrogenation .......................... 221
       7.4.1.3  Hydrodeoxygenation ............................ 223
       7.4.1.4  Hydrodemetallization .......................... 223
       7.4.1.5  Saturation Reactions .......................... 223
       7.4.1.6  Hydrocracking ................................. 223
       7.4.1.7  Hydrodeasphaltenization ....................... 224
     7.4.2  Reaction Kinetics ................................. 224
     7.4.3  Thermodynamics .................................... 229
     7.4.4  Catalysts ......................................... 231
7.5  Process Variables ........................................ 233
     7.5.1  Reaction Temperature .............................. 233
     7.5.2  Hydrogen Partial Pressure ......................... 235
     7.5.3  Space Velocity .................................... 236
     7.5.4  Hydrogen-to-Oil Ratio and Gas Recycle ............. 236
     7.5.5  Catalyst Activation ............................... 238
7.6  Modeling of Hydrotreating of Heavy-Oil-Derived Gas Oil ... 239
     7.6.1  Experimental Section .............................. 240
       7.6.1.1  Materials and Experimental Setup .............. 240
       7.6.1.2  Experimental Tests ............................ 240
       7.6.1.3  Analytical Methods ............................ 240
     7.6.2  Formulation of the Reactor Model .................. 242
       7.6.2.1  Model Assumptions ............................. 242
       7.6.2.2  Unsteady State Mass Balances .................. 243
       7.6.2.3  Unsteady State Heat Balances .................. 245
       7.6.2.4  Boundary Conditions ........................... 245
       7.6.2.5  Integration Method ............................ 246
     7.6.3  Reaction Kinetic Models ........................... 246
       7.6.3.1  Hydrodesulfurization .......................... 246
       7.6.3.2  Hydrodenitrogenation .......................... 247
       7.6.3.3  Hydrodearomatization .......................... 248
       7.6.3.4  Olefins Hydrogenation ......................... 249
       7.6.3.5  Mild Hydrocracking ............................ 249
     7.6.4  Estimation of Parameters .......................... 250
       7.6.4.1  Kinetic Parameters ............................ 250
       7.6.4.2  Catalyst Effectiveness Factor ................. 252
       7.6.4.3  Hydrodynamic Parameters ....................... 253
     7.6.5  Results and Discussion ............................ 254
       7.6.5.1  Dynamic Simulation of an Isothermal
                HDT Bench-Scale Reactor ....................... 255
       7.6.5.2  Dynamic Simulation of an Isobaric
                Nonisothermal HDT Commercial Reactor .......... 256
     Nomenclature ............................................. 262
     Greek Letters ............................................ 264
     Subscripts ............................................... 264
     Superscripts ............................................. 265
     References ............................................... 265

Chapter 8  Modeling and Simulation of Heavy Oil
Hydroprocessing ............................................... 271
8.1  Introduction ............................................. 271
8.2  Description of the IMP Heavy Oil Upgrading Technology .... 272
8.3  Experimental Studies ..................................... 274
     8.3.1  Generation of Kinetic Data ........................ 274
     8.3.2  Study of the Effect of Various Heavy Feedstocks
            on Catalyst Deactivation .......................... 277
     8.3.3  Long-Term Catalyst Stability Test ................. 280
8.4  Modeling Approach ........................................ 282
     8.4.1  Steady-State Mass and Heat Balance Equations ...... 282
     8.4.2  Dynamic Mass and Heat Balance Equations ........... 284
     8.4.3  Reaction Kinetics ................................. 286
     8.4.4  Scale-Up of Kinetic Data .......................... 287
     8.4.5  Catalyst Deactivation ............................. 288
     8.4.6  Solution Method ................................... 289
       8.4.6.1  Steady-State Simulations ...................... 289
       8.4.6.2  Dynamic Simulations ........................... 289
8.5  Data Fitting ............................................. 289
     8.5.1  Kinetic Parameters ................................ 290
     8.5.2  Deactivation Parameters ........................... 291
8.6  Simulation of the Bench-Scale Unit ....................... 292
     8.6.1  Reactor Simulation under Steady Catalyst
            Activity .......................................... 292
     8.6.2  Reactor Simulations with Time-Varying Catalyst
            Activity .......................................... 296
       8.6.2.1  Effect of Feedstock Type and Reaction
                Temperature on Catalyst Deactivation .......... 296
       8.6.2.2  Process Performance during the Catalyst
                Stability Test ................................ 297
8.7  Scale-Up of Bench-Unit Kinetic Data ...................... 300
8.8  Simulation of the Commercial Unit ........................ 302
     8.8.1  Reactor Design and Simulation under Stable
            Catalyst Activity ................................. 302
     8.8.2  Reactor Simulation and Analysis during Time-on-
            Stream ............................................ 304
     8.8.3  Transient Reactor Behavior during Start-Up ........ 307
       8.8.3.1  Quenching ..................................... 308
       8.8.3.2  Feed Temperature .............................. 310
       8.8.3.2  Start-Up Strategy ............................. 313
     Nomenclature ............................................. 314
     Greek Letters ............................................ 316
     Subscripts ............................................... 316
     References ............................................... 316

Chapter 9  Modeling of Bench-Scale Reactor for HDM and HDS
of Maya Crude Oil ............................................. 319
9.1  Introduction ............................................. 319
9.2  The Model ................................................ 320
     9.2.1  Model Assumptions ................................. 320
     9.2.2  Description of the Model .......................... 321

       9.2.2.1  Stoichiometric Coefficients for HDS
                Reaction ...................................... 322
       9.2.2.2  Reaction Rate Coefficients .................... 323
       9.2.2.3  Determination of Kinetic Parameters ........... 324
       9.2.2.4  Estimation of Transport and Thermodynamic
                Properties .................................... 326
     9.2.3  Model Solution .................................... 331
9.3  Experimental ............................................. 333
     9.3.1  Feedstock Characterization ........................ 333
     9.3.2  Experimental Reactor .............................. 333
     9.3.3  Isothermal Performance of Reactor ................. 334
     9.3.4  Catalyst Properties ............................... 334
     9.3.5  Catalyst Loading .................................. 334
     9.3.6  Catalyst Activation ............................... 334
     9.3.7  Minimizing Mass-Transfer Resistances .............. 334
     9.3.8  Effect of Reaction Conditions ..................... 335
9.4  Results .................................................. 335
     9.4.1  Stoichiometric Coefficient ........................ 335
     9.4.2  Kinetic Parameters for HDS and HDM Reactions ...... 336
     9.4.3  Simulation of the Bench-Scale Reactor ............. 339
     9.4.4  Comments about Model Assumptions .................. 342
     Nomenclature ............................................. 345
     Subscripts ............................................... 346
     Greek Letters ............................................ 346
     References ............................................... 346

Chapter 10  Modeling of Ebullated-Bed and Slurry-Phase
Reactors ...................................................... 349
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 349
10.2 Characteristics of Ebullated-Bed Reactor ................. 351
     10.2.1 Parts of the Ebullated-Bed Reactor ................ 352
       10.2.1.1 Recycle Cup ................................... 352
       10.2.1.2 Flow Distributor System ....................... 353
       10.2.1.3 Distributor Grid .............................. 353
       10.2.1.4 Downcomer ..................................... 353
       10.2.1.5 Emulating Pumps ............................... 354
     10.2.2 Advantages and Disadvantages ...................... 354
     10.2.3 Catalyst Bed Inventory ............................ 355
     10.2.4 Sediment Formation ................................ 356
     10.2.5 Catalyst Attrition ................................ 357
     10.2.6 Catalyst Deactivation ............................. 358
     10.2.7 Process Economics ................................. 361
10.3 EBR Commercial Technologies .............................. 362
     10.3.1 H-Oil Process ..................................... 362
     10.3.2 T-Star Process .................................... 363
     10.3.3 LC-Fining ......................................... 363
10.4 Modeling of Ebullated-Bed Reactor ........................ 364
     10.4.1 Hydrodynamic Studies .............................. 366
     10.4.2 Scaling-Down Studies .............................. 368
     10.4.3 Reactor Modeling .................................. 372
10.5 Modeling of Slurry-Phase Reactors ........................ 382
10.6 Kinetic Study for Hydrocracking of Heavy Oil in CSTR ..... 384
     10.6.1 Experimental ...................................... 386
       10.6.1.1 Experimental Setup ............................ 386
       10.6.1.2 Catalyst Loading and Activation ............... 386
       10.6.1.3 Experiments and Product Analysis .............. 386
     10.6.2 Results and Discussion ............................ 388
       10.6.2.1 Mass-Transfer Limitations ..................... 388
       10.6.2.2 Kinetic Modeling .............................. 389
     10.6.3 Conclusions ....................................... 395
10.7 Final Remarks ............................................ 395
     Nomenclature ............................................. 396
     Greek Letters ............................................ 398
     Subscripts ............................................... 399
     References ............................................... 399

Chapter 11  Modeling of Hydrocracking by Continuous Kinetic
Lumping Approach .............................................. 405
11.1 Introduction ............................................. 405
11.2 Continuous Kinetic Lumping Model ......................... 409
     11.2.1 Description of the Model .......................... 409
     11.2.2 Model Assumptions for Fixed-Bed Reactor ........... 412
     11.2.3 Solution of the Model ............................. 412
11.3 Experimental ............................................. 420
     11.3.1 Hydrocracking of Maya Crude Oil ................... 420
     11.3.2 Effect of Pressure on Hydrocracking of Maya
            Crude Oil ......................................... 420
     11.3.3 Simultaneous HDS and Hydrocracking of Heavy ОІ1 ... 420
11.4 Step-By-Step Example for Application of the Model ........ 421
     11.4.1 Data Used ......................................... 421
     11.4.2 Assumptions Regarding Boiling Points .............. 421
     11.4.3 Numerical Solution ................................ 422
     11.4.4 Results and Discussion ............................ 422
       11.4.4.1 Maximum Boiling Point Temperature ............. 422
       11.4.4.2 Domain Partition and Linear Approximation of
                the Yield Function ............................ 423
       11.4.4.3 Size of Step for Residence Time Variations .... 424
       11.4.4.4 Value of Model Parameters ..................... 424
       11.4.4.5 Results of the Case of Study .................. 424
11.5 Modeling Hydrocracking of Maya Crude Oil ................. 425
     11.5.1 Experimental Results .............................. 425
     11.5.2 Parameter Estimation .............................. 426
     11.5.3 Validation of the Model ........................... 427
     11.5.4 Application of the Model .......................... 429
11.6 Modeling the Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the
     Hydrocracking of Maya Crude Oil .......................... 431
     11.6.1 Background ........................................ 431
       11.6.1.1 Literature Reports ............................ 431
       11.6.1.2 Effect of Pressure ............................ 431
       11.6.1.3 Importance of Pressure Effect ................. 433
     11.6.2 Accounting for the Effect of Pressure ............. 433
     11.6.3 Results and Discussion ............................ 434
       11.6.3.1 Experiments ................................... 434
       11.6.3.2 Dependence of Model Parameters on Pressure
                and Temperature ............................... 436
       11.6.3.3 Values of Model Parameters as Function of
                Pressure ...................................... 438
       11.6.3.4 Prediction of Distillation Curves ............. 439
11.7 Modeling Simultaneous HDS and HDC of Heavy Oil ........... 441
     11.7.1 Description of the Model .......................... 442
       11.7.1.1 Hydrocracking Model ........................... 442
       11.7.1.2 Hydrodesulfurization Model .................... 444
     11.7.2 Solution of Model ................................. 445
     11.7.3 Results and Discussion ............................ 446
       11.7.3.1 Hydrocracking Reaction ........................ 446
       11.7.3.2 Hydrodesulfurization Reaction ................. 447
       11.7.3.3 Final Considerations .......................... 448
11.8 Significance of Parameters of Continuous Kinetic
     Lumping Model............................................. 448
     11.8.1 About the Model Parameters ........................ 448
     11.8.2 Other Factors Affecting the Model Parameters ...... 449
     11.8.3 Unresolved Questions and Future Research .......... 449
     Nomenclature ............................................. 450
     Subscripts ............................................... 451
     Superscripts ............................................. 451
     Greek Letters ............................................ 451
     References ............................................... 452

Chapter 12 Correlations and Other Aspects of Hydroprocessing .. 455
12.1 Correlations to Predict Product Properties
     during Hydrotreating of Heavy Oils ....................... 455
     12.1.1 Description of Correlations ....................... 457
     12.1.2 Results and Discussion ............................ 461
       12.1.2.1 Experimental Data ............................. 461
       12.1.2.2 Predictions Using Literature Values of
                Parameters .................................... 461
       12.1.2.3 Prediction Using Optimized Values of
                Parameters .................................... 467
       12.1.2.4 Correlating Values of Parameters with
                Feed Properties ............................... 468
12.2 Hydrogen Consumption during Catalytic Hydrotreating ...... 470
     12.2.1 Hydrogen Consumption .............................. 473
       12.2.1.1 Mass Balance of Hydrogen in Gas Stream ........ 475
       12.2.1.2 Global Hydrogen Balance ....................... 475
       12.2.1.3 Class of Hydrogen-Consuming Chemical
                Reactions ..................................... 475
       12.2.1.4 Hydrogen Consumption by Reaction Average
                Contributions ................................. 478
       12.2.1.5 Hydrogen Consumption by Kinetic Modeling ...... 479
     12.2.2 Solubility of Hydrogen ............................ 480
     12.2.3 Results and Discussion ............................ 482
       12.2.3.1 Experimental Data ............................. 482
       12.2.3.2 Global Hydrogen Balance ....................... 482
       12.2.3.3 Hydrogen Balance in Gas Streams ............... 485
       12.2.3.4 Class of Hydrogen-Consuming Chemical
                Reactions ..................................... 487
       12.2.3.5 Hydrogen Consumption by Reaction
     Average Contributions .................................... 487
12.3 Real Conversion and Yields from Hydroprocessing of
     Heavy Oils Plants ........................................ 488
     12.3.1 Experimental Data ................................. 488
     12.3.2 Methodology ....................................... 489
     12.3.3 Results ........................................... 490
12.4 Calculation of Fresh-Basis Composition from Spent
     Catalyst Analysis ........................................ 493
     12.4.1 Statement of the Problem .......................... 494
     12.4.2 Catalyst Samples and Characterization ............. 495
     12.4.3 Results and Discussion ............................ 496
12.5 Use of Probability Distribution Functions for Fitting
     Distillation Curves of Petroleum ......................... 499
     12.5.1 Brief Background of Probability Distribution
            Functions ......................................... 500
     12.5.2 Methodology ....................................... 502
       12.5.2.1 Data Source ................................... 502
       12.5.2.2 Example of Parameter Estimation ............... 507
       12.5.2.3 Parameter Estimation for All Distribution
                Functions ..................................... 508
     12.5.3 Results and Discussion ............................ 511
       12.5.3.1 Ranking of Functions .......................... 511
       12.5.3.2 Validation of the Best Functions .............. 516
     Nomenclature ............................................. 519
     Subscripts ............................................... 521
     Superscripts ............................................. 521
     Greek Letters ............................................ 521
     References ............................................... 521

Index ......................................................... 525

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Документ изменен: Fri Jan 20 12:34:48 2017. Размер: 34,983 bytes.
Посещение N 197 c 12.01.2016