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ОбложкаBahadori A. Thermal insulation handbook for the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries. - Waltham: Elsevier, 2014. - xix, 394 p.: ill. - ISBN 978-0-12-800010
Шифр: (И/О.7-В15) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ...................................................... xvii
About the Author .............................................. xxi

1    Design and Application of Thermal Insulation ............... 1
1.1  Purpose of Thermal Insulation .............................. 3
1.2  Design Considerations ...................................... 5
     1.2.1  Location ............................................ 5
     1.2.2  Dimensions of Surfaces .............................. 5
     1.2.3  Temperature Conditions .............................. 6
     1.2.4  Preparation of Surfaces ............................. 7
     1.2.5  Type of Insulation Required ......................... 7
     1.2.6  Type of Finish Required ............................. 7
     1.2.7  Special Service Requirements ........................ 7
     1.2.8  Basis on Which the Thickness of Insulation Is
            Determined .......................................... 7
     1.2.9  Information to Be Supplied by the Manufacturers of
            Insulation .......................................... 8
     1.2.10 Types and Application ............................... 8
1.3  Selection of Thermal Insulating Systems ................... 11
     1.3.1  Optimum Effectiveness .............................. 11
     1.3.2  Extent of System ................................... 12
     1.3.3  Factors for Consideration .......................... 13
1.4  Design Considerations ..................................... 15
     1.4.1  Economic Thickness ................................. 15
     1.4.2  Applications for Which Economic Thicknesses Are
            Not Appropriate .................................... 16
     1.4.3  Effect of Air Spaces ............................... 16
     1.4.4  Thermal Efficiency ................................. 17
     1.4.5  Specified Conditions at the Point of Delivery ...... 17
     1.4.6  Protection of Boundary Surfaces .................... 18
     1.4.7  Clearance Between Insulation and the Surrounding
            Surfaces ........................................... 18
     1.4.8  Provision for Differential Thermal Movement ........ 18
     1.4.9  Provision for Preventing Settlement and Cracking ... 20
     1.4.10 Insulation of Pipes in Ducts and Subways ........... 20
     1.4.11 Fire Hazards ....................................... 21
     1.4.12 Insulation Against Freezing ........................ 21
     1.4.13 Protection Against Surface Condensation ............ 22
     1.4.14 Vapor Barriers ..................................... 22
1.5  Heat Transfer Through Insulation .......................... 32
     1.5.1  Correlation Approach for the Estimation of
            Thermal Insulation Thickness ....................... 37
     1.5.2  A Graphical Technique for the Estimation of
            Thermal Insulation Thickness ....................... 47
1.6  Economic Thickness of Insulation .......................... 54
1.7  Methods of Obtaining Economic Thickness ................... 54
     1.7.1  Economic Thickness by Tabulation ................... 54
     1.7.2  Economic Thickness by Algebraic Solution ........... 56
     1.7.3  Method of Calculation .............................. 57
     1.7.4  Examples of Calculation of Economic Thickness ...... 59
     1.7.5  Simple Correlation for Estimation of Economic
            Thickness of Thermal Insulation .................... 65
1.8  Hot Insulation Thickness .................................. 72
1.9  Cold Insulation Thickness ................................. 74
1.10 Calculation of Thickness of Insulating Material Required
     to Prevent Condensation ................................... 74
     1.10.1 Examples ........................................... 78
1.11 Heat-Traced Pipe: Insulation Thickness .................... 82
1.12 Relationship of System Requirements to the Design of
     Insulation Systems and to the Properties of Materials
     Used ...................................................... 82
1.13 General Application of Thermal Insulation ................. 86
     1.13.1 Conditions in Which Thermal Insulation Shall Be
            Applied ............................................ 86
     1.13.2 Personnel Protection ............................... 93
1.14 Characteristics of Insulating and Accessory Materials ..... 94
     1.14.1 Consideration of Characteristics of Insulating
            Materials .......................................... 94
     1.14.2 Suitability for Service Temperature ................ 97
     1.14.3 Thermal Expansion .................................. 98
     1.14.4 Resistance to Compaction ........................... 98
     1.14.5 Resistance to Water Vapor Penetration and to
            Water Absorption ................................... 98
     1.14.6 Mechanical Strength ................................ 99
     1.14.7 Durability ......................................... 99
     1.14.8 Fire and Explosion Hazards ......................... 99
     1.14.9 Chemical Resistance ............................... 100
     1.14.10 Optimum Life ..................................... 101
     1.14.11 Optimum Heat Capacity ............................ 101
     1.14.12 Freedom from Objectionable Odor .................. 101
     1.14.13 Maintenance Requirements ......................... 101
     1.14.14 Thermal Expansions ............................... 102
     1.14.15 Resistance to Compaction ......................... 102
     1.14.16 Resistance to Vermin and Fungus .................. 102
1.15 Consideration of Characteristics of Accessory Materials .. 102
     1.15.1 Vapor Barriers .................................... 102
     1.15.2 Vapor Barriers for Use over Insulation on
            Surfaces Below Dew Point .......................... 103
     1.15.3 Vapor Barriers for Use over Insulation on
            Surfaces Above Dew Point .......................... 103
     1.15.4 Finishing Materials ............................... 103
     1.15.5 Securing Materials ................................ 104
     1.15.6 Mechanical Securements ............................ 107
1.16 Selection of Insulation and Accessory Materials .......... 107
     1.16.1 Thermal Insulating Materials ...................... 108
     1.16.2 Summary of Insulation Types ....................... 116
1.17 Fastening Materials ...................................... 117
     1.17.1 Banding ........................................... 117
     1.17.2 Miscellaneous Fastening Materials ................. 117
1.18 Jacketing Materials ...................................... 120
1.19 Finishing Materials ...................................... 120
1.20 Rapid Estimation of Heat Losses from Oil and Gas
     Process Piping and Equipment Surfaces .................... 121
     1.20.1 Development of Simple Predictive Tool ............. 125
1.21 Corrosion Considerations in Design and Application of
     Thermal Insulation ....................................... 129
     1.21.1 Corrosion of Steel Under Insulation ............... 131
     1.21.2 Acidic Corrosion .................................. 134
     1.21.3 Alkaline Corrosive Attack ......................... 135
     1.21.4 Intergranular Corrosion ........................... 135
     1.21.5 Bimetallic (Galvanic) Corrosion ................... 135
     1.21.6 Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) of Stainless
            Steel Under Insulation ............................ 136
     1.21.7 Stress Corrosion Attack on Other Metals ........... 139
     1.21.8 Attack by Liquid Metals ........................... 142

2    Thermal Insulation Installations ......................... 143
2.1  Phases ................................................... 145
     2.1.1  Shipping .......................................... 145
     2.1.2  Storage ........................................... 146
     2.1.3  Fabrication ....................................... 147
     2.1.4  Application ....................................... 147
     2.1.5. Service ........................................... 148
2.2  Installation System Details .............................. 152
     2.2.1  Voids in Insulation ............................... 153
     2.2.2  Projection Through Insulation ..................... 153
     2.2.3  Traced Piping and Vessel .......................... 154
     2.2.4  Weather/Vapor Barrier Details ..................... 155
2.3  Application Procedure .................................... 158
     2.3.1  Application Specification ......................... 159
     2.3.2  Weather Barrier Designation I: Metal Jacket
            Pipe .............................................. 164
     2.3.3  Weather Barrier Designation II: Reinforced
            Mastic ............................................ 165
2.4  Extent of Insulation ..................................... 166
2.5  Hot Insulation ........................................... 167
2.6  Cold Insulation .......................................... 168
2.7  Finishes ................................................. 168
     2.7.1  Hot Services ...................................... 169
     2.7.2  Cold Services ..................................... 169
2.8  Methods of Insulation Application ........................ 169
     2.8.1  Working Conditions ................................ 171
     2.8.2  Surface Preparation ............................... 171
     2.8.3  Accessories ....................................... 172
2.9  Hot Insulation Application ............................... 183
     2.9.1  Hot Pipework ...................................... 184
     2.9.2  Application of Insulation to Pipework Heated by
            External Tracing Pipe ............................. 185
     2.9.3  Vertical Piping ................................... 189
     2.9.4  Application ....................................... 189
     2.9.5  Weatherproofing and Finishing ..................... 191
     2.9.6  Hot Vessels ....................................... 192
     2.9.7  Method of Application ............................. 193
     2.9.8  Exchangers ........................................ 197
     2.9.9  Tanks ............................................. 197
2.10 Valves, Flanges, and Fittings ............................ 203
2.11 Cold Insulation Application .............................. 206
     2.11.1 Cold Pipework ..................................... 209
     2.11.2 Weatherproofing ................................... 211
     2.11.3 Vessels ........................................... 211
     2.11.4 Vapor Barrier and Weatherproofing ................. 213
2.12 Valves, Flanges, Fittings, and Irregular Surfaces ........ 214
     2.12.1 Insulation Application ............................ 214
     2.12.2 Weatherproofing ................................... 214
2.13 Cold Spheres ............................................. 215
     2.13.1 Insulation Application ............................ 215
     2.13.2 Weatherproofing ................................... 216
2.14 Prefabricated Underground Pipe Systems ................... 216
2.15 Inspection and Maintenance of Existing Insulation
     Systems .................................................. 219
     2.15.1 Inspection ........................................ 219
     2.15.2 Maintenance ....................................... 220
2.16 Surface Preparation for Thermal Insulation Installation .. 221
     2.16.1 Selection of Cleaning Method(s) ................... 222
     2.16.2 Initial Condition of Surface (Rust Grade) ......... 222
     2.16.3 New Construction (Uncoated Surfaces) .............. 223
     2.16.4 Maintenance (Coated Surface) ...................... 223
     2.16.5 Cleanliness of the Surfaces ....................... 223
     2.16.6 Rust Converters, Rust Stabilizers, and
            Penetrating Agents ................................ 230
     2.16.7 Influence of Environmental Conditions on the
            Cleaning and Cleanliness of Surfaces .............. 230
     2.16.8 Testing of the Cleanliness of the Prepared
            Surfaces .......................................... 230
     2.16.9 Degree of Roughness (Surface Profile) ............. 231
     2.16.10 Temporary Protection of Prepared Surfaces
            Against Corrosion and/or Contamination ............ 232
     2.16.11 Preparation of Surfaces Protected by Temporary
            Coats or by Only Part of the Purposed Coats
            Until Subsequent Coating Is Applied ............... 233
     2.16.12 Procedure Qualification .......................... 234
2.17 Degreasing ............................................... 234

3    Material Selection for Thermal Insulation ................ 239
3.1  Mineral Fiber Preformed Pipe Thermal Insulation .......... 242
     3.1.1  Materials and Manufacture ......................... 243
     3.1.2  General Properties ................................ 243
     3.1.3  Chemical Composition .............................. 244
     3.1.4  Physical Properties ............................... 244
     3.1.5  Water Vapor Sorption .............................. 245
     3.1.6  Shapes, Sizes, and Dimensions ..................... 245
     3.1.7  Dimensional Tolerances ............................ 246
     3.1.8  Workmanship ....................................... 246
     3.1.9  Sampling .......................................... 246
     3.1.10 Inspection and Rejection .......................... 246
     3.1.11 Packaging and Marking ............................. 247
     3.1.12 Storage ........................................... 248
3.2  Mineral Fiber Block and Board Thermal Insulation ......... 248
     3.2.1  Material and Manufacture .......................... 248
     3.2.2  General Properties ................................ 249
     3.2.3  Chemical Composition .............................. 249
     3.2.4  Physical Properties ............................... 250
     3.2.5  Size of Board and Slab ............................ 250
     3.2.6  Dimensional Tolerances ............................ 250
     3.2.7  Workmanship ....................................... 251
     3.2.8  Sampling .......................................... 251
     3.2.9  Inspection and Rejection .......................... 251
     3.2.10 Packaging and Marking ............................. 252
     3.2.11 Storage ........................................... 253
3.3  Mineral Fiber Blanket and Blanket-Type Pipe Thermal
     Insulation ............................................... 253
     3.3.1  Material and Manufacture .......................... 253
     3.3.2  General Properties ................................ 254
     3.3.3  Chemical Composition .............................. 254
     3.3.4  Physical Properties ............................... 255
     3.3.5  Dimensions ........................................ 256
     3.3.6  Dimensional Tolerances ............................ 256
     3.3.7  Workmanship ....................................... 256
     3.3.8  Sampling .......................................... 256
     3.3.9  Inspection and Rejection .......................... 257
     3.3.10 Packaging and Marking ............................. 257
     3.3.11 Storage ........................................... 258
3.4  Calcium Silicate Preformed Block and Pipe Thermal
     Insulation ............................................... 258
     3.4.1  General Properties ................................ 259
     3.4.2  Composition ....................................... 259
     3.4.3  Physical Properties ............................... 260
     3.4.4  Standard Shape, Size, and Dimension ............... 261
     3.4.5  Dimensional Tolerances ............................ 262
     3.4.6  Workmanship ....................................... 263
     3.4.7  Sampling .......................................... 263
     3.4.8  Inspection and Rejection .......................... 263
     3.4.9  Packaging and Marking ............................. 264
     3.4.10 Storage ........................................... 265
3.5  Cellular Glass/Foam Glass Thermal Insulation ............. 265
     3.5.1  Classification .................................... 266
     3.5.2  Material and Manufacture .......................... 266
     3.5.3  Physical Properties ............................... 267
     3.5.4  Standard Sizes and Dimensions ..................... 268
     3.5.5  Dimensional Tolerances ............................ 269
     3.5.6  Workmanship ....................................... 270
     3.5.7  Sampling .......................................... 270
     3.5.8  Inspection and Rejection .......................... 270
     3.5.9  Packaging and Marking ............................. 271
     3.5.10 Storage ........................................... 272
     3.5.11 Special Considerations for Hot Thermal
            Insulation ........................................ 272
3.6  Corkboard and Cork Pipe Thermal Insulation ............... 272
     3.6.1  Materials and Manufacture ......................... 274
     3.6.2  Physical Properties ............................... 274
     3.6.3  Standard Sizes and Dimensions ..................... 275
     3.6.4  Dimensional Tolerances ............................ 276
     3.6.5  Workmanship ....................................... 276
     3.6.6  Sampling .......................................... 276
     3.6.7  Inspection and Rejection .......................... 276
     3.6.8  Packaging and Marking ............................. 277
     3.6.9  Storage ........................................... 277
3.7  Spray-Applied Rigid-Cellular Polyurethane (PUR) and
     Polyisocyanurate (PIR) Thermal Insulation ................ 278
     3.7.1  Designation ....................................... 278
     3.7.2  Composition ....................................... 278
     3.7.3  Manufacture ....................................... 278
     3.7.4  Physical Properties ............................... 279
     3.7.5  PUR Materials for Pipe Supports ................... 281
     3.7.6  Preformed Spacers ................................. 281
     3.7.7  Sampling .......................................... 282
     3.7.8  Unit Sample ....................................... 282
     3.7.9  Test Specimen Preparation ......................... 282
     3.7.10 Inspection and Rejection .......................... 283
     3.7.11 Certification ..................................... 284
     3.7.12 Packaging and Marking ............................. 284
     3.7.13 Storage ........................................... 284
     3.7.14 Health and Safety Precautions ..................... 285
3.8  Preformed Rigid-Cellular Polyurethane (PUR) and
     Polyisocyanurate (PIR) Thermal Insulation ................ 285
     3.8.1  Designation ....................................... 285
     3.8.2  Composition ....................................... 286
     3.8.3  Manufacture (PUR) ................................. 286
     3.8.4  Physical Properties ............................... 287
     3.8.5  Shapes and Sizes .................................. 288
     3.8.6  Molded Components ................................. 289
     3.8.7  Color Identification .............................. 289
     3.8.8  Dimensional Tolerances ............................ 289
     3.8.9  Workmanship ....................................... 291
     3.8.10 Sampling .......................................... 291
     3.8.11 Specimen Preparation .............................. 291
     3.8.12 Inspection and Rejection .......................... 291
     3.8.13 Packaging and Marking ............................. 292
     3.8.14 Storage ........................................... 292
     3.8.15 Health and Safety Hazards ......................... 292
3.9  Miscellaneous Materials to Be Used with Thermal
     Insulation ............................................... 293
     3.9.1  Filler Insulation ................................. 293
     3.9.2  Vapor Barriers .................................... 293
     3.9.3  Joint Sealant/Adhesive Materials .................. 295
     3.9.4  Metallic Jacketing ................................ 297
     3.9.5  Accessory Materials ............................... 298
     3.9.6  Inspection and Rejection .......................... 300

4    Cryogenic Insulation Systems for LNG Industries .......... 303
4.1  Polyurethane ............................................. 305
     4.1.1  Benefits and Advantages of Polyurethane
            Insulation ........................................ 305
     4.1.2  PU/PIR Typical Applications ....................... 307
4.2  Multilayer Insulation: Super Insulation .................. 309
4.3  Foam Insulation .......................................... 310
4.4  Perlite .................................................. 310
4.5  Cetrafoam ................................................ 311
4.6  Other Insulation Systems ................................. 312
4.7  Cryogenic Insulation System Performance .................. 312
     4.7.1  Comparative Performance of Insulation ............. 312
     4.7.2  Insulation Performance: Heat Transfer ............. 313
4.8  Armaflex Cryogenic Systems ............................... 315
     4.8.1  Flexible at Cryogenic Temperatures ................ 315
     4.8.2  Built-in Expansion Joint .......................... 315
     4.8.3  Built-in Vapor Barrier ............................ 316
     4.8.4  Field of Application .............................. 316
4.9  Aerogels ................................................. 317
     4.9.1  Environmentally Friendly .......................... 317
     4.9.2  Fire Resistant .................................... 317
     4.9.3  Lightweight ....................................... 317
     4.9.4  Durable ........................................... 318
     4.9.5  Hydrophobic ....................................... 318
     4.9.6  Applications ...................................... 318
     4.9.7  Thermal Performance ............................... 318
     4.9.8  Structural Integrity .............................. 318
     4.9.9  Dimensional Stability ............................. 319
     4.9.10 Aerogel Insulation System Advantages .............. 319
4.10 Cryogenic Vacuum Pipe .................................... 320

5    Thermal Insulation for Offshore Installations in Deep
     Water .................................................... 323
5.1  Steady and Transient Solutions for Flowline Temperature .. 327
     5.1.1  Governing Equations ............................... 328
5.2  Materials Development .................................... 332
     5.2.1  Polypropylene Block Copolymers .................... 332
     5.2.2  High Melt Strength Polypropylene (HMS-PP) ......... 332
     5.2.3  Foam Structure and Scanning Electron Microscope
            (SEM) Characterization ............................ 332
     5.2.4  Test and Design Methodology ....................... 334
     5.2.5  Test Method Description ........................... 335
     5.2.6  Limit State Design ................................ 336
     5.2.7  Qualification Program and Test Results ............ 336
     5.2.8  Aging Tests ....................................... 337
     5.2.9  Mechanical Tests .................................. 337
     5.2.10 Thermal Conductivity .............................. 338
     5.2.11 Bending Tests ..................................... 339
     5.2.12 Simulated Service Tests ........................... 340
     5.2.13 Design Example .................................... 340
     5.2.14 Manufacturing and Installation .................... 341
5.3  Flow Assurance: Thermal Reach ............................ 341
5.4  Insulation Material Selection ............................ 344
     5.4.1  Material Development and Characteristics .......... 345
     5.4.2  Syntactic Polypropylene (SPP) ..................... 347
     5.4.3  Manufacturing Processes ........................... 348
     5.4.4  Qualification Schemes ............................. 349
     5.4.5  Syntactic Foam .................................... 353

Definitions and Terminology ................................... 355
Bibliography, References, and Further Reading ................. 369
Index ......................................................... 379

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