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ОбложкаDuffie J.A. Solar engineering of thermal processes / J.A.Duffie, W.A.Beckman. - 4th ed. - Hoboken: Wiley, 2013. - xxvi, 910 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.887-910. - ISBN 978-0-470-87366-3
Шифр: (И/З.6-D86) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ........................................................ xi
Preface to the Third Edition xiii Preface to the Second
Edition ........................................................ xv
Preface to the First Edition ................................. xvii
Introduction .................................................. xxi

PART I  FUNDAMENTALS ............................................ 1

1  Solar Radiation .............................................. 3
   1.1  The Sun ................................................. 3
   1.2  The Solar Constant ...................................... 5
   1.3  Spectral Distribution of Extraterrestrial Radiation ..... 6
   1.4  Variation of Extraterrestrial Radiation ................. 8
   1.5  Definitions ............................................. 9
   1.6  Direction of Beam Radiation ............................ 12
   1.7  Angles for Tracking Surfaces ........................... 20
   1.8  Ratio of Beam Radiation on Tilted Surface to That on
        Horizontal Surface ..................................... 23
   1.9  Shading ................................................ 29
   1.10 Extraterrestrial Radiation on a Horizontal Surface ..... 37
   1.11 Summary ................................................ 41
   References .................................................. 41
2  Available Solar Radiation ................................... 43
   2.1  Definitions ............................................ 43
   2.2  Pyrheliometers and Pyrheliometric Scales ............... 44
   2.3  Pyranometers ........................................... 48
   2.4  Measurement of Duration of Sunshine .................... 53
   2.5  Solar Radiation Data ................................... 54
   2.6  Atmospheric Attenuation of Solar Radiation ............. 59
   2.7  Estimation of Average Solar Radiation .................. 64
   2.8  Estimation of Clear-Sky Radiation ...................... 68
   2.9  Distribution of Clear and Cloudy Days and Hours ........ 71
   2.10 Beam and Diffuse Components of Hourly Radiation ........ 74
   2.11 Beam and Diffuse Components of Daily Radiation ......... 77
   2.12 Beam and Diffuse Components of Monthly Radiation ....... 79
   2.13 Estimation of Hourly Radiation from Daily Data ......... 81
   2.14 Radiation on Sloped Surfaces ........................... 84
   2.15 Radiation on Sloped Surfaces: Isotropic Sky ............ 89
   2.16 Radiation on Sloped Surfaces: Anisotropic Sky .......... 91
   2.17 Radiation Augmentation ................................. 97
   2.18 Beam Radiation on Moving Surfaces ..................... 101
   2.19 Average Radiation on Sloped Surfaces: Isotropic Sky ... 103
   2.20 Average Radiation on Sloped Surfaces: KT Method ....... 107
   2.21 Effects of Receiving Surface Orientation ontfr ........ 112
   2.22 Utilizability ......................................... 115
   2.23 Generalized Utilizability ............................. 118
   2.24 Daily Utilizability ................................... 126
   2.25 Summary ............................................... 132
   References ................................................. 133
3  Selected Heat Transfer Topics .............................. 138
   3.1  The Electromagnetic Spectrum .......................... 138
   3.2  Photon Radiation ...................................... 139
   3.3  The Blackbody: Perfect Absorber and Emitter ........... 139
   3.4  Planck's Law and Wien's Displacement Law .............. 140
   3.5  Stefan-Boltzmann Equation ............................. 141
   3.6  Radiation Tables ...................................... 142
   3.7  Radiation Intensity and Flux .......................... 144
   3.8  Infrared Radiation Exchange between Gray Surfaces ..... 146
   3.9  Sky Radiation ......................................... 147
   3.10 Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficient ................... 148
   3.11 Natural Convection between Flat Parallel Plates and
        between Concentric Cylinders .......................... 149
   3.12 Convection Suppression ................................ 154
   3.13 Vee-Corrugated Enclosures ............................. 158
   3.14 Heat Transfer Relations for Internal Flow ............. 159
   3.15 Wind Convection Coefficients .......................... 163
   3.16 Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Packed Beds and
        Perforated Plates ..................................... 165
   3.17 Effectiveness-NTU Calculations for Heat Exchangers .... 168
   References ................................................. 170
4  Radiation Characteristics of Opaque Materials .............. 173
   4.1  Absorptance and Emittance ............................. 174
   4.2  Kirchhoff s Law ....................................... 176
   4.3  Reflectance of Surfaces ............................... 177
   4.4  Relationships among Absorptance, Emittance, and
        Reflectance ........................................... 181
   4.5  Broadband Emittance and Absorptance ................... 182
   4.6  Calculation of Emittance and Absorptance .............. 183
   4.7  Measurement of Surface Radiation Properties ........... 186
   4.8  Selective Surfaces .................................... 188
   4.9  Mechanisms of Selectivity ............................. 192
   4.10 Optimum Properties .................................... 195
   4.11 Angular Dependence of Solar Absorptance ............... 196
   4.12 Absorptance of Cavity Receivers ....................... 197
   4.13 Specularly Reflecting Surfaces ........................ 198
   References ................................................. 199
5  Radiation Transmission through Glazing: Absorbed
   Radiation .................................................. 202
   5.1  Reflection of Radiation ............................... 202
   5.2  Absorption by Glazing ................................. 206
   5.3  Optical Properties of Cover Systems ................... 206
   5.4  Transmittance for Diffuse Radiation ................... 211
   5.5  Transmittance-Absorptance Product ..................... 213
   5.6  Angular Dependence of (та) ............................ 214
   5.7  Spectral Dependence of Transmittance .................. 215
   5.8  Effects of Surface Layers on Transmittance ............ 218
   5.9  Absorbed Solar Radiation .............................. 219
   5.10 Monthly Average Absorbed Radiation .................... 223
   5.11 Absorptance of Rooms .................................. 229
   5.12 Absorptance of Photovoltaic Cells ..................... 231
   5.13 Summary ............................................... 234
   References ................................................. 234
6  Flat-Plate Collectors ...................................... 236
   6.1  Description of Flat-Plate Collectors .................. 236
   6.2  Basic Flat-Plate Energy Balance Equation .............. 237
   6.3  Temperature Distributions in Flat-Plate Collectors .... 238
   6.4  Collector Overall Heat Loss Coefficient ............... 240
   6.5  Temperature Distribution between Tubes and the
        Collector Efficiency Factor ........................... 254
   6.6  Temperature Distribution in Flow Direction ............ 261
   6.7  Collector Heat Removal Factor and Flow Factor ......... 262
   6.8  Critical Radiation Level .............................. 266
   6.9  Mean Fluid and Plate Temperatures ..................... 267
   6.10 Effective Transmittance-Absorptance Product ........... 268
   6.11 Effects of Dust and Shading ........................... 271
   6.12 Heat Capacity Effects in Flat-Plate Collectors ........ 272
   6.13 Liquid Heater Plate Geometries ........................ 275
   6.14 Air Heaters ........................................... 280
   6.15 Measurements of Collector Performance ................. 287
   6.16 Collector Characterizations ........................... 288
   6.17 Collector Tests: Efficiency, Incidence Angle
        Modifier, and Time Constant ........................... 289
   6.18 Test Data ............................................. 299
   6.19 Thermal Test Data Conversion .......................... 302
   6.20 Flow Rate Corrections to FK(xa)„ and FR UL ............ 305
   6.21 Flow Distribution in Collectors ....................... 308
   6.22 In Situ Collector Performance ......................... 309
   6.23 Practical Considerations for Flat-Plate Collectors .... 310
   6.24 Putting it all Together ............................... 313
   6.25 Summary ............................................... 318
   References ................................................. 319
7  Concentrating Collectors ................................... 322
   7.1  Collector Configurations .............................. 323
   7.2  Concentration Ratio ................................... 325
   7.3  Thermal Performance of Concentrating Collectors ....... 327
   7.4  Optical Performance of Concentrating Collectors ....... 334
   7.5  Cylindrical Absorber Arrays ........................... 335
   7.6  Optical Characteristics of Nonimaging Concentrators ... 337
   7.7  Orientation and Absorbed Energy for CPC Collectors .... 345
   7.8  Performance of CPC Collectors ......................... 349
   7.9  Linear Imaging Concentrators: Geometry ................ 351
   7.10 Images Formed by Perfect Linear Concentrators ......... 354
   7.11 Images from Imperfect Linear Concentrators ............ 359
   7.12 Ray-Trace Methods for Evaluating Concentrators ........ 361
   7.13 Incidence Angle Modifiers and Energy Balances ......... 361
   7.14 Paraboloidal Concentrators ............................ 367
   7.15 Central-Receiver Collectors ........................... 368
   7.16 Practical Considerations .............................. 369
   References ................................................. 370
8  Energy Storage ............................................. 373
   8.1  Process Loads and Solar Collector Outputs ............. 373
   8.2  Energy Storage in Solar Process Systems ............... 375
   8.3  Water Storage ......................................... 376
   8.4  Stratification in Storage Tanks ....................... 379
   8.5  Packed-Bed Storage .................................... 384
   8.6  Storage Walls ......................................... 392
   8.7  Seasonal Storage ...................................... 394
   8.8  Phase Change Energy Storage ........................... 396
   8.9  Chemical Energy Storage ............................... 400
   8.10 Battery Storage ....................................... 402
   References ................................................. 406
9  Solar Process Loads ........................................ 409
   9.1  Examples of Time-Dependent Loads ...................... 410
   9.2  Hot-Water Loads ....................................... 411
   9.3  Space Heating Loads, Degree-Days, and Balance
        Temperature ........................................... 412
   9.4  Building Loss Coefficients ............................ 415
   9.5  Building Energy Storage Capacity ...................... 417
   9.6  Cooling Loads ......................................... 417
   9.7  Swimming Pool Heating Loads ........................... 418
        References ............................................ 420
10 System Thermal Calculations ................................ 422
   10.1 Component Models ...................................... 422
   10.2 Collector Heat Exchanger Factor ....................... 424
   10.3 Duct and Pipe Loss Factors ............................ 426
   10.4 Controls .............................................. 429
   10.5 Collector Arrays: Series Connections .................. 431
   10.6 Performance of Partially Shaded Collectors ............ 433
   10.7 Series Arrays with Sections Having Different
        Orientations .......................................... 435
   10.8 Use of Modified Collector Equations ................... 438
   10.9 System Models ......................................... 441
   10.10 Solar Fraction and Solar Savings Fraction ............ 444
   10.11 Summary .............................................. 445
   References ................................................. 446
11 Solar Process Economics .................................... 447
   11.1 Costs of Solar Process Systems ........................ 447
   11.2 Design Variables ...................................... 450
   11.3 Economic Figures of Merit ............................. 452
   11.4 Discounting and Inflation ............................. 454
   11.5 Present-Worth Factor .................................. 456
   11.6 Life-Cycle Savings Method ............................. 459
   11.7 Evaluation of Other Economic Indicators ............... 464
   11.8 The Pi, P2 Method ..................................... 467
   11.9 Uncertainties in Economic Analyses .................... 472
   11.10 Economic Analysis Using Solar Savings Fraction ....... 475
   11.11 Summary .............................................. 476
   References ................................................. 476

PART II APPLICATIONS .......................................... 477

12 Solar Water Heating: Active and Passive .................... 479
   12.1 Water Heating Systems ................................. 479
   12.2 Freezing, Boiling, and Scaling ........................ 483
   12.3 Auxiliary Energy ...................................... 486
   12.4 ч Forced-Circulation Systems .......................... 488
   12.5 Low-Flow Pumped Systems ............................... 490
   12.6 Natural-Circulation Systems ........................... 491
   12.7 Integral Collector Storage Systems .................... 494
   12.8 Retrofit Water Heaters ................................ 496
   12.9 Water Heating in Space Heating and Cooling Systems .... 497
   12.10 Testing and Rating of Solar Water Heaters ............ 497
   12.11 Economics of Solar Water Heating ..................... 499
   12.12 Swimming Pool Heating ................................ 502
   12.13 Summary .............................................. 503
   References ................................................. 503
13 Building Heating: Active ................................... 505
   13.1 Historical Notes ...................................... 506
   13.2 Solar Heating Systems ................................. 507
   13.3 CSU House III Rat-Plate Liquid System ................. 511
   13.4 CSU House II Air System ............................... 513
   13.5 Heating System Parametric Study ....................... 517
   13.6 Solar Energy-Heat Pump Systems ........................ 521
   13.7 Phase Change Storage Systems .......................... 527
   13.8 Seasonal Energy Storage Systems ....................... 530
   13.9 Solar and Off-Peak Electric Systems ................... 533
   13.10 Solar System Overheating ............................. 535
   13.11 Solar Heating Economics .............................. 536
   13.12 Architectural Considerations ......................... 539
   References ................................................. 541
14 Building Heating: Passive and Hybrid Methods ............... 544
   14.1 Concepts of Passive Heating ........................... 545
   14.2 Comfort Criteria and Heating Loads .................... 546
   14.3 Movable Insulation and Controls ....................... 546
   14.4 Shading: Overhangs and Wingwalls ...................... 547
   14.5 Direct-Gain Systems ................................... 552
   14.6 Collector-Storage Walls and Roofs ..................... 557
   14.7 Sunspaces ............................................. 561
   14.8 Active Collection-Passive Storage Hybrid Systems ...... 563
   14.9 Other Hybrid Systems .................................. 565
   14.10 Passive Applications ................................. 565
   14.11 Heat Distribution in Passive Buildings ............... 571
   14.12 Costs and Economics of Passive Heating ............... 571
   References ................................................. 573
15 Solar Cooling .............................................. 575
   15.1 Solar Absorption Cooling .............................. 576
   15.2 Theory of Absorption CooUng ........................... 578
   15.3 Combined Solar Heating and Cooling .................... 584
   15.4 Simulation Study of Solar Air Conditioning ............ 585
   15.5 Operating Experience with Solar Cooling ............... 589
   15.6 Applications of Solar Absorption Air Conditioning ..... 591
   15.7 Solar Desiccant Cooling ............................... 592
   15.8 Ventilation and Recirculation Desiccant Cycles ........ 594
   15.9 Solar-Mechanical Cooling .............................. 596
   15.10 Solar-Related Air Conditioning ....................... 599
   15.11 Passive Cooling ...................................... 601
   References ................................................. 601
16 Solar Industrial Process Heat .............................. 604
   16.1 Integration with Industrial Processes ................. 604
   16.2 Mechanical Design Considerations ...................... 605
   16.3 Economics of Industrial Process Heat .................. 606
   16.4 Open-Circuit Air Heating Applications ................. 607
   16.5 Recirculating Air System Applications ................. 611
   16.6 Once-Through Industrial Water Heating ................. 613
   16.7 Recirculating Industrial Water Heating ................ 615
   16.8 Shallow-Pond Water Heaters ............................ 617
   16.9 Summary ............................................... 619
   References ................................................. 619
17 Solar Thermal Power Systems ................................ 621
   17.1 Thermal Conversion Systems ............................ 621
   17.2 Gila Bend Pumping System .............................. 622
   17.3 Luz Systems ........................................... 624
   17.4 Central-Receiver Systems .............................. 628
   17.5 Solar One and Solar Two Power Plants .................. 630
   References ................................................. 633
18 Solar Ponds: Evaporative Processes ......................... 635
   18.1 Salt-Gradient Solar Ponds ............................. 635
   18.2 Pond Theory ........................................... 637
   18.3 Applications of Ponds ................................. 639
   18.4 Solar Distillation .................................... 640
   18.5 Evaporation ........................................... 646
   18.6 Direct Solar Drying ................................... 647
   18.7 Summary ............................................... 647
   References ................................................. 648

PART IIІ DESIGN METHODS ....................................... 651

19 Simulations in Solar Process Design ........................ 653
   19.1 Simulation Programs ................................... 653
   19.2 Utility of Simulations ................................ 654
   19.3 Information from Simulations .......................... 655
   19.4 TRNSYS: Thermal Process Simulation Program ............ 656
   19.5 Simulations and Experiments ........................... 663
   19.6 Meteorological Data ................................... 663
   19.7 Limitations of Simulations ............................ 666
   References ................................................. 667
20 Design of Active Systems: ƒ-Chart .......................... 668
   20.1 Review of Design Methods .............................. 668
   20.2 The ƒ-Chart Method .................................... 669
   20.3 The ƒ-Chart for Liquid Systems ........................ 673
   20.4 The ƒ-Chart for Air Systems ........................... 679
   20.5 Service Water Heating Systems ......................... 683
   20.6 The ƒ-Chart Results ................................... 685
   20.7 Parallel Solar Energy-Heat Pump Systems ............... 686
   20.8 Summary ............................................... 690
   References ................................................. 690
21 Design of Active Systems by Utilizability Methods .......... 692
   21.1 Hourly Utilizability .................................. 693
   21.2 Daily Utilizability ................................... 696
   21.3 The Ø ƒ-Chart Method .................................. 699
   21.4 Summary ............................................... 709
   References ................................................. 710
22 Design of Passive and Hybrid Heating Systems ............... 711
   22.1 Approaches to Passive Design .......................... 711
   22.2 Solar-Load Ratio Method ............................... 712
   22.3 Unutilizability Design Method: Direct Gain ............ 721
   22.4 Unutilizability Design Method: Collector-Storage
        Walls ................................................. 727
   22.5 Hybrid Systems: Active Collection with Passive
        Storage ............................................... 736
   22.6 Other Hybrid Systems .................................. 742
   References ................................................. 743
23 Design of Photovoltaic Systems ............................. 745
   23.1 Photovoltaic Converters ............................... 746
   23.2 PV Generator Characteristics and Models ............... 747
   23.3 Cell Temperature ...................................... 757
   23.4 Load Characteristics and Direct-Coupled Systems ....... 759
   23.5 Controls and Maximum Power Point Trackers ............. 763
   23.6 Applications .......................................... 764
   23.7 Design Procedures ..................................... 765
   23.8 High-Flux PV Generators ............................... 770
   23.9 Summary ............................................... 771
   References ................................................. 771
24 Wind Energy ................................................ 774
   24.1 Introduction .......................................... 774
   24.2 Wind Resource ......................................... 778
   24.3 One-Dimensional Wind Turbine Model .................... 786
   24.4 Estimating Wind Turbine Average Power and Energy
        Production ............................................ 791
   24.5 Summary ............................................... 796
   References ................................................. 796

APPENDIXES .................................................... 797

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