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ОбложкаDvorkin J. Seismic reflections of rock properties / J.Dvorkin, M.A. Gutierrez, D.Grana. - Cambridge; New York: Cambridge university press, 2014. - xvii, 324 p.: ill. - Bibliogr.: p.312-322. - Ind.: p.323-324. - ISBN 978-0-521-89919-2
Шифр: (И/Д45-D96) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ...................................................... xiii
Acknowledgments .............................................. xvii

Part I  The basics .............................................. 1

1  Forward modeling of seismic reflections for rock
   characterization ............................................. 3
   1.1  Introduction ............................................ 3
   1.2  Quantifying elastic properties of earth by forward
        modeling: a primer ...................................... 4
   1.3  Quantifying rock properties by forward modeling:
        a primer ................................................ 9
   1.4  Rock physics transforms: a primer ....................... 9
   1.5  Synthetic seismic catalogues ........................... 10
2  Rock physics models and transforms .......................... 13
   2.1  Rock physics transforms ................................ 13
   2.2  Elastic constants ...................................... 13
   2.3  Solid phase ............................................ 14
   2.4  Fluid phase ............................................ 16
   2.5  Fluid substitution ..................................... 18
   2.6  The Raymer-Hunt-Gardner transform ...................... 22
   2.7  Other 5-wave velocity predictors ....................... 24
   2.8  Contact-cement model ................................... 26
   2.9  Soft-sand model ........................................ 28
   2.10 Stiff-s'and model ...................................... 29
   2.11 Constant-cement model .................................. 30
   2.12 Inclusion models ....................................... 31
   2.13 Summary of the models .................................. 34
   2.14 Properties of the pore fluid phases .................... 35
   2.15 A note on effective and total porosity and fluid
        substitution ........................................... 35
   2.16 Example of applying rock physics models to simulate
        seismic amplitude ...................................... 41
3  Rock physics diagnostics .................................... 43
   3.1  Quantitative diagnostics ............................... 43
   3.2  Qualitative diagnostics: staring at the data ........... 47
   3.3  Word of caution when using well data ................... 49

Part II  Synthetic seismic amplitude ........................... 51

4  Modeling at an interface: quick-look approach ............... 53
   4.1  Reflection modeling at an interface: the concept ....... 53
   4.2  Normal reflectivity and reflectivity at an angle ....... 53
   4.3  Forward modeling using elastic constants ............... 56
   4.4  Forward modeling directly from rock properties ......... 60
5  Pseudo-wells: principles and examples ....................... 68
   5.1  Sandwich (three-layer) model ........................... 68
   5.2  Geologically consistent inputs ......................... 72
   5.3  Depth and compaction ................................... 83
6  Pseudo-wells: statistics-based generation ................... 90
   6.1  Introduction ........................................... 90
   6.2  Monte Carlo simulation ................................. 91
   6.3  Monte Carlo simulation with spatial correlation ........ 92
   6.4  Monte Carlo simulation within facies ................... 97
   6.5  Stochastic simulation of related variables ............. 98
   6.6  Examples and sensitivity analysis ..................... 100
   6.7  Pseudo-logs of facies ................................. 102
   6.8  Spatial simulation of rock properties and
        reflections ........................................... 106

Part III  From well data and geology to earth models and
reflections ................................................... 113

7  Clastic sequences: diagnostics and Vs prediction ........... 115
   7.1  Unconsolidated gas sand ............................... 115
   7.2  Consolidated cemented gas sand ........................ 125
8  Log shapes at the well scale and seismic reflections in
   clastic sequences .......................................... 132
   8.1  Examples of shapes encountered in clastic sequences ... 132
   8.2  Typical shapes and pseudo-wells in clastic sequences .. 137
9  Synthetic modeling in carbonates ........................... 153
   9.1  Background and models ................................. 153
   9.2  Laboratory and well data .............................. 157
   9.3  Pseudo-wells and reflections .......................... 159
10 Time lapse (4D) reservoir monitoring ....................... 165
   10.1 Background ............................................ 165
   10.2 Fluid substitution on velocity-pressure data .......... 169
   10.3 Synthetic seismic gathers ............................. 172
   10.4 Conclusion ............................................ 175

Part IV  Frontier exploration ................................. 177

11 Rock-physics-based workflow in oil and gas exploration ..... 179
   11.1 Introduction .......................................... 179
   11.2 Rock physics modeling for amplitude calibration ....... 180
   11.3 Log and seismic quality control and conditioning ...... 181
   11.4 Velocity in exploration seismology .................... 182
   11.5 Time-to-depth calibration ............................. 183
   11.6 Rock typing ........................................... 185
   11.7 Seismic forward modeling .............................. 185
   11.8 Rock property upscaling ............................... 186
   11.9 Depth trends, rock physics diagnostics, and model
        formulation ........................................... 187
   11.10 Using trends at prospect location .................... 194
12 DHI validation and prospect risking ........................ 197
   12.1 Introduction .......................................... 197
   12.2 Feasibility studies ................................... 197
   12.3 Recognition of seismic anomalies ...................... 198
   12.4 DHI validation and prospect risking ................... 199

Part V  Advanced rock physics: diagenetic trends, self-
similarity, permeability, Poisson's ratio in gas sand,
seismic wave attenuation, gas hydrates ........................ 205

13 Rock physics case studies .................................. 207
   13.1 Universality of diagenetic trends ..................... 207
   13.2 Self-similarity in rock physics ....................... 212
   13.3 Elastic properties of rock and its permeability ....... 218
   13.4 Stratigraphy-constrained rock physics modeling ........ 220
14 Poisson's ratio and seismic reflections .................... 225
   14.1 The high Poisson's ratio issue in gas sand ............ 225
   14.2 Physics-based explanations ............................ 229
   14.3 But how much does it really matter? ................... 237
15 Seismic wave attenuation ................................... 239
   15.1 Background and definitions ............................ 239
   15.2 Attenuation and modulus (velocity) dispersion ......... 241
   15.3 Q data ................................................ 243
   15.4 Modulus dispersion and attenuation at partial
        saturation ............................................ 244
   15.5 Modulus dispersion and attenuation in wet rock ........ 252
   15.6 Examples .............................................. 254
   15.7 Effect of attenuation on seismic traces ............... 255
   15.8 Approximate theory of S-wave attenuation .............. 256
16 Gas hydrates ............................................... 262
   16.1 Background ............................................ 262
   16.2 Rock physics models for sediment with gas hydrate ..... 264
   16.3 Attenuation in sediment with gas hydrate .............. 269
   16.4 Pseudo-wells and synthetic seismic in gas hydrates .... 273

Part VI  Rock physics operations directly applied to seismic
amplitude and impedance ....................................... 275

17 Fluid substitution on seismic amplitude .................... 277
   17.1 Background ............................................ 277
   17.2 Primer: model-based reflection between two half-
        spaces ................................................ 278
   17.3 Model-based effect of thickness ....................... 279
   17.4 Applying a model-based approach to a case study ....... 285
   17.5 Lessons and conclusions ............................... 289
   17.6 Practical application ................................. 291
18 Rock physics and seismically derived impedance ............. 292

Part VII  Evolving methods .................................... 297

19 Computational rock physics ................................. 299
   19.1 Third source of controlled experimental data .......... 299
   19.2 Scale of experiment and trends ........................ 301
   19.3 More examples ......................................... 304
   19.4 Multiphase flow ....................................... 305
   19.5 Conclusion ............................................ 307

Appendix: Direct hydrocarbon indicator checklist .............. 308
References .................................................... 312
Index ......................................................... 323
Color plates appear between pages 126 and 127.

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