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ОбложкаMineral exploration: principles and applications / ed. S.K.Haldar. - Waltham: Elsevier, 2013. - xvii, 334 p.: ill. - Bibliogr.: 323-324. - Ind.: p.325-334. - ISBN 978-0-12-416005-7
Шифр: (И/Д44-М73) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ...................................................... хііі
List of Acronyms used in this book ............................. xv
About the Author ............................................. xvii

1    Mineral Exploration ........................................ 1
1.1  Introduction ............................................... 1
     1.1.1  Why Mineral Exploration? ............................ 1
1.2  Definition ................................................. 2
     1.2.1  Mineral and Rock .................................... 2
     1.2.2  Ore ................................................. 2
     1.2.3  Ore Deposit ......................................... 7
     1.2.4  Prime Commodity, Associated Commodity and Trace
            Element ............................................. 7
     1.2.5  Protore ............................................. 7
     1.2.6  Gangue Minerals and Tailing ......................... 8
     1.2.7  Deleterious Substances .............................. 8
1.3  Exploration ................................................ 8
     1.3.1  Discovery Type ...................................... 8
     1.3.2  Stages of Exploration ............................... 8
1.4  Mineral Policy and Act .................................... 12
     1.4.1  Australia .......................................... 12
     1.4.2  Canada ............................................. 13
     1.4.3  Chile .............................................. 14
     1.4.4  India .............................................. 15
     1.4.5  Portugal ........................................... 17
     1.4.6  South Africa ....................................... 18
     1.4.7  Tunisia ............................................ 18
     1.4.8  Royalties and Taxation ............................. 20
     1.4.9  Lease Application .................................. 20
1.5  Mineral to Metal—A Full Circle ............................ 21
     Further Reading ........................................... 21

2    Economic Mineral Deposits and Host Rocks .................. 23
2.1  Definition ................................................ 23
2.2  Common Economic Minerals .................................. 24
2.3  Classification of Mineral Deposits ........................ 24
     2.3.1  Geographical Localization .......................... 24
     2.3.2  Depth of Occurrence ................................ 28
     2.3.3  Relation to Host Rocks ............................. 28
     2.3.4  Structural Control ................................. 29
     2.3.5  Nature of Mineralization ........................... 31
     2.3.6  Morphology ......................................... 32
     2.3.7  Genetic Model ...................................... 34
     2.3.8  Contained Metal .................................... 36
2.4  Host Rocks ................................................ 37
2.5  Industry Specifications ................................... 37
     Further Reading ........................................... 39

3    Exploration Geology ....................................... 41
3.1  Definition ................................................ 41
3.2  Regional Planning and Organization ........................ 41
     3.2.1  Bureau of Mines .................................... 42
     3.2.2  Geological Survey .................................. 42
     3.2.3  State/Regional Department of Mines and Geology ..... 43
     3.2.4  Public Sectors Undertakings ........................ 43
     3.2.5  Private Sectors .................................... 44
     3.2.6  Multinational Limited Companies .................... 44
3.3  Surface Guide ............................................. 44
     3.3.1  Favorable Stratigraphy and Host Rocks .............. 44
     3.3.2  Weathering ......................................... 44
     3.3.3  Ancient Mining and Smelting ........................ 44
     3.3.4  Shear .............................................. 46
     3.3.5  Lineament .......................................... 47
3.4  Topographic Survey ........................................ 47
3.5  Geological Mapping ........................................ 47
     3.5.1  Surface Map ........................................ 47
     3.5.2  Underground Mapping ................................ 49
3.6  Stratigraphic Correlation ................................. 50
3.7  Exploration Activity ...................................... 50
     3.7.1  Regional Scale ..................................... 50
     3.7.2  District Scale ..................................... 51
     3.7.3  Local Scale ........................................ 51
     3.7.4  Exploration Components ............................. 51
3.8  Exploration of Coal and Coal Bed Methane .................. 52
     Further Reading ........................................... 53

4    Exploration Geochemistry .................................. 55
4.1  Definition ................................................ 55
     4.1.1  Elemental Dispersion ............................... 55
     4.1.2  Pathfinder Elements ................................ 56
     4.1.3  Background and Threshold Value ..................... 56
     4.1.4  Orientation Survey ................................. 56
     4.1.5  Regional, District and Local Scale Geochemistry .... 57
4.2  Field Procedure ........................................... 58
4.3  Analytical Methods ........................................ 58
     4.3.1  Visual Colorimeter ................................. 58
     4.3.2  Emission Spectrograph .............................. 58
     4.3.3  Atomic Absorption Spectrometry ..................... 58
     4.3.4  X-ray Fluorescence ................................. 59
     4.3.5  Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission
            Spectrometry ....................................... 59
     4.3.6  Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis ........... 59
     4.3.7  Scanning/Transmission Electron Microscope .......... 59
     4.3.8  Electron Microprobe and Secondary Ion Mass
            Spectrometers ...................................... 59
     4.3.9  Choice of Analysis ................................. 60
4.4  Data Interpretation ....................................... 60
4.5  Geochemical Methods ....................................... 60
     4.5.1  Pedo-geochemical ................................... 61
     4.5.2  Consolidated Weathered Cover ....................... 61
     4.5.3  Litho-geochemical Survey ........................... 63
     4.5.4  Drift or Till Geochemical Survey ................... 64
     4.5.5  Stream Sediment Survey ............................. 65
     4.5.6  Hydro-geochemical Survey ........................... 65
     4.5.7  Vegetation Survey .................................. 66
     4.5.8  Geo-zoological Survey .............................. 67
     4.5.9  Vapor Survey ....................................... 67
     4.5.10 Electro-geochemical Survey ......................... 69
     4.5.11 Radiogenic Isotope Geochemistry .................... 70
     4.5.12 Heavy Mineral Survey ............................... 70
     4.5.13 Polymetallic-Polynodule Survey ..................... 70
4.6  Review .................................................... 70
     Further Reading ........................................... 71

5    Exploration Geophysics .................................... 73
5.1  Introduction .............................................. 73
5.2  Seismic Survey ............................................ 75
     5.2.1  Concept ............................................ 75
     5.2.2  Stress and Strain .................................. 76
     5.2.3  Elastic Moduli ..................................... 76
     5.2.4  Seismic Waves ...................................... 76
     5.2.5  Seismic Reflection and Refraction Method ........... 77
5.3  Gravity Survey ............................................ 78
     5.3.1  Concept ............................................ 78
     5.3.2  Theory ............................................. 78
     5.3.3  Unit of Gravity .................................... 79
     5.3.4  Rock Density ....................................... 79
     5.3.5  Measurement of Gravity ............................. 79
     5.3.6  Gravity Reduction .................................. 80
     5.3.7  Applications ....................................... 81
5.4  Magnetic Survey ........................................... 81
     5.4.1  Concept ............................................ 81
     5.4.2  Theory ............................................. 82
     5.4.3  Earth's Magnetic Field ............................. 82
     5.4.4  Rock Magnetism ..................................... 83
     5.4.5  Survey Instruments ................................. 84
     5.4.6  Data Reduction ..................................... 84
     5.4.7  Applications ....................................... 85
5.5  Electrical Survey ......................................... 85
     5.5.1  Concept ............................................ 85
     5.5.2  Resistivity Method ................................. 86
     5.5.3  IP Method .......................................... 87
     5.5.4  SP Method .......................................... 88
5.6  EM Survey ................................................. 88
     5.6.1  Definition ......................................... 88
     5.6.2  Detection of EM Field .............................. 89
     5.6.3  Time-Domain Electromagnetic Survey ................. 89
     5.6.4  Noncontacting Conductivity Measurement ............. 90
     5.6.5  Airborne EM Survey ................................. 90
     5.6.6  Applications ....................................... 90
5.7  Radiometric Survey ........................................ 90
     5.7.1  Concept ............................................ 90
     5.7.2  Instrument ......................................... 91
     5.7.3  Radiometric Dating ................................. 91
     5.7.4  Applications ....................................... 91
5.8  Borehole Logging .......................................... 92
     5.8.1  Principles of Well Logging ......................... 92
     5.8.2  Mise-á-la-Masse .................................... 92
     5.8.3  Applications ....................................... 92
5.9  Review .................................................... 93
     Further Reading ........................................... 93

6    Photogeology, Remote Sensing and Geographic Information
     System in Mineral Exploration ............................. 95
6.1  Introduction .............................................. 96
6.2  Photogeology .............................................. 96
     6.2.1  Evolution of Camera ................................ 96
     6.2.2  Classification of Aerial Photographs ............... 97
     6.2.3  Parallax ........................................... 98
     6.2.4  Photographic Resolution ............................ 98
     6.2.5  Problems of Aerial Photograph ...................... 98
     6.2.6  Photo interpretation ............................... 99
     6.2.7  Application in Mineral Exploration ................. 99
6.3  Remote Sensing ............................................ 99
     6.3.1  Definition and Concept ............................. 99
     6.3.2  Energy Sources and Radiation ...................... 100
     6.3.3  RS System ......................................... 101
     6.3.4  Characteristics of Digital Images ................. 104
     6.3.5  Digital Image Processing .......................... 105
     6.3.6  Interpretation .................................... 105
     6.3.7  RS Application in Natural Resources ............... 105
6.4  Geographic Information System ............................ 107
     6.4.1  Definition ........................................ 107
     6.4.2  Components of GIS ................................. 107
     6.4.3  Capabilities ...................................... 108
     6.4.4  Data Input ........................................ 108
     6.4.5  Projection and Registration ....................... 109
     6.4.6  Topology Building ................................. 110
     6.4.7  Overlay Data Analysis and Modeling ................ 110
     6.4.8  GIS Application in Mineral Exploration ............ 111
6.5  Global Positioning System ................................ 112
     6.5.1  Space Segment ..................................... 112
     6.5.2  Ground CS ......................................... 112
     6.5.3  User Segment ...................................... 112
     6.5.4  Signals ........................................... 113
     6.5.5  Types of GPS ...................................... 113
     6.5.6  Applications ...................................... 113
6.6  Software in RS-GIS ....................................... 114
     6.6.1  ArcGIS ............................................ 114
     6.6.2  AutoCAD ........................................... 114
     6.6.3  IDRISI ............................................ 114
     6.6.4  Integrated Land and Water Information System ...... 114
     6.6.5  Maplnfo ........................................... 114
     6.6.6  Microstation ...................................... 115
     6.6.7  PAMAP ............................................. 115
     6.6.8  SPANS ............................................. 115
     Further Reading .......................................... 115

7    Sampling Methods ......................................... 117
7.1  Definition ............................................... 117
7.2  Sampling Equipment ....................................... 117
     7.2.1  Conventional Equipment ............................ 117
     7.2.2  Drilling Techniques ............................... 118
7.3  Sampling Methods ......................................... 127
     7.3.1  Soil Sampling ..................................... 127
     7.3.2  Pitting ........................................... 127
     7.3.3  Trenching ......................................... 128
     7.3.4  Stack Sampling .................................... 128
     7.3.5  Alluvial Placer Sampling .......................... 129
     7.3.6  Channel Sampling .................................. 129
     7.3.7  Chip Sampling ..................................... 129
     7.3.8  Diamond Drill Core Sampling ....................... 129
     7.3.9  Sludge Sampling ................................... 130
     7.3.10 RC Drill Sampling ................................. 131
     7.3.11 Grab Sampling ..................................... 131
     7.3.12 Muck Sampling ..................................... 131
     7.3.13 Car Sampling ...................................... 131
     7.3.14 Bulk Sampling ..................................... 131
     7.3.15 Ocean Bed Sampling ................................ 131
7.4  Sample Reduction for Chemical
     Analysis ................................................. 132
7.5  Accuracy and Due Diligence in
     Sampling ................................................. 133
7.6  Quality Assurance and Quality Control .................... 134
7.7  Optimization of Samples .................................. 135
     Further Reading .......................................... 135

8    Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve Estimation .............. 137
8.1  Definition ............................................... 137
     8.1.1  Estimation of Resource and Reserve ................ 138
     8.1.2  Mineral Resource .................................. 138
     8.1.3  Ore Reserve ....................................... 138
     8.1.4  Mineable Reserve .................................. 138
8.2  Estimation of Quality .................................... 139
     8.2.1  Cutoff Grade ...................................... 139
     8.2.2  Minimum Width ..................................... 139
     8.2.3  Cutting Factors ................................... 139
     8.2.4  Average Grade ..................................... 140
     8.2.5  Mineable Grade .................................... 141
     8.2.6  ROM Grade ......................................... 141
     8.2.7  Mill Feed and Tailing Grade ....................... 141
8.3  Conventional Resource/Reserve Estimation ................. 141
     8.3.1  Old Style ......................................... 141
     8.3.2  Triangular ........................................ 142
     8.3.3  Square and Rectangle .............................. 142
     8.3.4  Polygonal ......................................... 142
     8.3.5  Isograde/lsopach .................................. 142
     8.3.6  Cross-Section ..................................... 143
     8.3.7  Longitudinal Vertical Section ..................... 144
     8.3.8  Level Plan ........................................ 144
     8.3.9  Inverse Power of Distance ......................... 145
8.4  Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve Classification .......... 147
     8.4.1  Conventional Classification System ................ 148
     8.4.2  USGS/USBM Classification Scheme ................... 149
     8.4.3  UNFC Scheme ....................................... 150
     8.4.4  JORC Classification Code .......................... 151
     8.4.5  Canadian Resource Classification Scheme ........... 152
     8.4.6  Comparison of Reserve Classification .............. 153
8.5  Ore Monitoring System .................................... 154
     8.5.1  Representation of Mine Status ..................... 154
     8.5.2  Forecast, Grade Control and Monitoring System ..... 154
     Further Reading .......................................... 155

9    Statistical and Geostatistical Applications in Geology ... 157
9.1  Why Geostatistics? ....................................... 157
9.2  Statistical Applications ................................. 158
     9.2.1  Universe .......................................... 158
     9.2.2  Population, Sample and Sampling Unit .............. 158
     9.2.3  Probability Distribution .......................... 158
     9.2.4  Frequency Distribution ............................ 159
     9.2.5  Normal or Gaussian Distribution ................... 159
     9.2.6  Minimum, Maximum, Range, Median, Mode and Mean .... 159
     9.2.7  Sample Variance and Standard Deviation ............ 161
     9.2.8  Probability Plot .................................. 161
     9.2.9  Lognormal or Pareto Distribution .................. 162
     9.2.10 Covariance ........................................ 164
     9.2.11 Correlation Coefficient ........................... 165
     9.2.12 Scatter Diagram ................................... 165
     9.2.13 Regression ........................................ 165
     9.2.14 The Null Hypothesis ............................... 166
     9.2.15 The f-Test ........................................ 167
     9.2.16 The F-Test ........................................ 168
     9.2.17 The Chi-Square Test ............................... 168
     9.2.18 Analysis of Variance .............................. 169
     9.2.19 Trend Surfaces Analysis ........................... 170
     9.2.20 Moving Average .................................... 171
9.3  Misclassified Tonnage .................................... 173
9.4  Geostatistical Applications .............................. 174
     9.4.1  Block Variance .................................... 174
     9.4.2  Semi-variogram .................................... 174
     9.4.3  Estimation Variance ............................... 179
     9.4.4  Kriging ........................................... 179
     9.4.5  Kriging Estimation—An Example ..................... 180
     9.4.6  Benefits of Geostatistics ......................... 182
     Further Reading .......................................... 182

10   Exploration Modeling ..................................... 183
10.1 Definition ............................................... 183
10.2 Types of Model ........................................... 183
     10.2.1 Descriptive Model ................................. 183
     10.2.2 Conceptual Model .................................. 184
     10.2.3 Genetic Model ..................................... 184
     10.2.4 Mineral Deposit/Belt Model ........................ 184
     10.2.5 Predictive Model .................................. 184
     10.2.6 Statistical and Geostatistical Model .............. 185
     10.2.7 Orebody Model ..................................... 185
     10.2.8 Grade-Tonnage Model ............................... 186
     10.2.9 Empirical Model ................................... 189
     10.2.10 Exploration Model ................................ 190
10.3 Modeling: A Holistic Dynamic Approach .................... 190
     10.4  Limitations ........................................ 192
     Further Reading .......................................... 192

11   Elements of Mining ....................................... 193
11.1 Definition ............................................... 193
11.2 Surface Mining ........................................... 194
     11.2.1 Placer Mining ..................................... 194
     11.2.2 Shallow Deposits .................................. 195
     11.2.3 Open-Pit Mining for Large Deposits ................ 196
     11.2.4 Ocean Bed Mining .................................. 198
     11.3 Underground Mining .................................. 198
     11.3.1 Mine Access ....................................... 199
     11.3.2 Underground Mining of Bedded Deposits ............. 204
     11.3.3 Underground Hard Rock Mining ...................... 208
11.4 Mine Machinery ........................................... 213
     11.4.1 Drilling .......................................... 214
     11.4.2 Mucking ........................................... 216
     11.4.3 Transporting ...................................... 218
11.5 Mine Explosive ........................................... 218
11.6 Rock Mechanics and Support System ........................ 218
11.7 Mine Ventilation ......................................... 220
11.8 Mine Closure ............................................. 220
11.9 Mining Software .......................................... 221
     Further Reading .......................................... 222

12   Mineral Processing ....................................... 223
12.1 Definition ............................................... 223
12.2 Ore Handling ............................................. 224
     12.2.1 Cleaning .......................................... 224
     12.2.2 Transportation .................................... 224
     12.2.3 Stockpile ......................................... 224
     12.2.4 Weighing, Sampling and ln-stream Analyzer ......... 225
     12.2.5 Particle Size Analysis ............................ 227
12.3 Comminution .............................................. 227
     12.3.1 Crushing .......................................... 228
     12.3.2 Grinding Mill ..................................... 230
12.4 Screening and Classification ............................. 231
     12.4.1 Screening ......................................... 232
     12.4.2 Classification .................................... 233
12.5 Concentration ............................................ 234
     12.5.1 Leaching .......................................... 234
     12.5.2 Ore Sorting ....................................... 235
     12.5.3 Gravity Concentration ............................. 236
     12.5.4 Magnetic Separation ............................... 238
     12.5.5 Electrostatic Separation .......................... 239
     12.5.6 Dense Medium Separation ........................... 239
     12.5.7 Flotation ......................................... 239
     12.5.8 Dewatering ........................................ 246
     12.5.9 Tailing Management ................................ 247
12.6 Metallurgical Accounting ................................. 248
     12.6.1 Plant Recovery .................................... 248
     12.6.2 Ore to Concentrate Ratio .......................... 248
     12.6.3 Enrichment Ratio .................................. 249
     12.6.4 Metal Balancing ................................... 249
     12.6.5 Milling Cost ...................................... 249
     12.6.6 Concentrate Valuation ............................. 249
12.7 Ore to Concentrate and Metal ............................. 250
     Further Reading .......................................... 250

13   Mineral Economics ........................................ 251
13.1 Definition ............................................... 251
13.2 Investment Philosophy .................................... 251
13.1 Stages of Investment ..................................... 252
13.4 Investment Analysis ...................................... 253
     13.4.1 Undiscounted Method ............................... 253
     13.4.2 Discounted Method ................................. 254
13.5 Sources of Investment Risk ............................... 255
13.6 Investment Risk and Sensitivity Analysis ................. 256
13.7 Economic Evaluation of Mineral Deposits .................. 257
     13.7.1 Evaluation Process ................................ 258
     13.7.2 Order of Magnitude Feasibility or Scoping
            Studies ........................................... 260
     13.7.3 Pre-feasibility Study ............................. 260
     13.7.4 Feasibility Study ................................. 261
13.8 Case Study of Economic Evaluation ........................ 261
     13.8.1 A Zinc-Lead Project ............................... 261
     13.8.2 A Zinc-Lead-Copper Silver Project ................. 262
13.9 Summary .................................................. 265
     Further Reading .......................................... 266

14   Environmental System Management of Mineral Resources
     and Sustainable Development .............................. 267
14.1 Definition ............................................... 267
14.2 ESM in Mineral Industry .................................. 268
     14.2.1 Exploration ....................................... 268
     14.2.2 Mining and Beneficiation .......................... 268
     14.2.3 Smelting and Refining ............................. 280
     14.2.4 International Organization for Standardization .... 280
     14.2.5 Benefits of ESM ................................... 281
14.3 Sustainable Development in Mining ........................ 281
     14.3.1 Indicators ........................................ 282
     14.3.2 Minerals and Mining as Means of Achieving
            Sustainable Development ........................... 284
     Further Reading .......................................... 285

15   Mineral Exploration—Case Histories ....................... 287
15.1 Definition ............................................... 288
15.2 Zawar Group, India: An Age-Old Ancient Zinc-Lead-Silver
     Mining-Smelting Tradition ................................ 288
     15.2.1 An Ancient Mining Tradition ....................... 288
     15.2.2 Location and Discovery ............................ 288
     15.2.3 Regional Setting .................................. 289
     15.2.4 Host Rock ......................................... 289
     15.2.5 Mineralization .................................... 289
     15.2.6 Genetic Model ..................................... 289
     15.2.7 Size and Grade .................................... 289
     15.2.8 Salient Features of the Mine Blocks ............... 290
15.3 Broken Hill, Australia: The Largest and Richest Zinc-
     Lead-Silver Deposit in the World ......................... 290
     15.3.1 Location and Discovery History .................... 290
     15.3.2 Regional Setting .................................. 290
     15.3.3 Host Rocks ........................................ 290
     15.3.4 Mineralization .................................... 292
     15.3.5 Genetic Model ..................................... 292
     15.3.6 Size and Grade .................................... 292
15.4 Malanjkhand: The Single Largest Porphyry Copper-
     Molybdenum Orebody in India .............................. 293
     15.4.1 Location and Discovery ............................ 293
     15.4.2 Regional Setting .................................. 293
     15.4.3 Mineralization .................................... 294
     15.4.4 Genetic Models .................................... 294
     15.4.5 Size and Grade .................................... 294
15.5 Sindesar-Khurd: Routine Drilling Discovered Concealed
     Zn-Pb-Ag Deposit in India ................................ 294
     15.5.1 Location and Discovery ............................ 294
     15.5.2 Regional Setting .................................. 295
     15.5.3 Host Rocks ........................................ 296
     15.5.4 Mineralization .................................... 296
     15.5.5 Genetic Model ..................................... 296
     15.5.6 Size and Grade .................................... 296
     15.5.7 Rajpura-Dariba Mine Block ......................... 296
     15.5.8 Sindesar-Khurd Mine Block ......................... 297
     15.5.9 Salient Features of the Leasehold Blocks .......... 299
15.6 Neves Corvo, Portugal: Discovery of Deep-Seated
     Zn-Cu-Sn Deposit: A Geophysical Success .................. 299
     15.6.1 Location and Discovery ............................ 299
     15.6.2 Regional Setting .................................. 301
     15.6.3 Exploration ....................................... 301
     15.6.4 Mineralization .................................... 302
     15.6.5 Genetic Model ..................................... 303
     15.6.6 Size and Grade .................................... 303
15.7 Bushveld, South Africa: The Largest Platinum-Chromium
     Deposits of the World .................................... 303
     15.7.1 Location and Discovery ............................ 303
     15.7.2 Exploration ....................................... 303
     15.7.3 Regional Setting .................................. 303
     15.7.4 Genetic Model ..................................... 304
     15.7.5 Mineralization .................................... 305
     15.7.6 Size and Grade .................................... 305
15.8 Sudbury, Canada: The Largest Nickel-Platinum-Copper
     Deposits of the World .................................... 305
     15.8.1 Location and Discovery ............................ 305
     15.8.2 Regional Setting .................................. 306
     15.8.3 Exploration ....................................... 306
     15.8.4 Mineralization .................................... 307
     15.8.5 Genetic Model ..................................... 308
     15.8.6 Size and Grade .................................... 308
15.9 Rampura-Agucha: The Single Largest and Richest Zn-Pb-Ag
     Deposit in India: Geostatistical Applications in
     Mineral Exploration ...................................... 308
     15.9.1 Location and Discovery ............................ 308
     15.9.2 Regional Setting .................................. 309
     15.9.3 Mineralization .................................... 309
     15.9.4 Genetic Models .................................... 309
     15.9.5 Size and Grade .................................... 309
     15.9.6 Mine Operation .................................... 309
     15.9.7 Geostatistical Applications in Mineral
            Exploration ....................................... 309
     15.9.8 Exploration Scheme ................................ 310
     15.9.9 Database .......................................... 310
     15.9.10 QC and QA ........................................ 310
     15.9.11 General Statistical Applications ................. 310
     15.9.12 Isograde Maps .................................... 311
     15.9.13 Semi-variogram ................................... 312
     15.9.14 Sequential Evaluation Model ...................... 312
     15.9.15 Estimation Variance and Optimization of Drill
             Hole Spacing ..................................... 314
5.10 Jhamarkotra, India: Discovery of the Largest
     Stromatolitic Rock-Phosphate Deposit by Geological
     Modeling and Exploration to Environment Management
     Practices: A Holistic Approach ........................... 315
     15.10.1 Location and Discovery ........................... 316
     15.10.2 Regional Settings ................................ 317
     15.10.3 Host Rocks ....................................... 317
     15.10.4 Mineralization ................................... 317
     15.10.5 Genetic Model .................................... 317
     15.10.6 Exploration ...................................... 317
     15.10.7 Size and Grade ................................... 317
     15.10.8 Mining ........................................... 317
     15.10.9 Beneficiation .................................... 317
     15.10.10 Environment Management .......................... 317
15.11 Base Metal Discovery Trend: The Last 50 Years in India .. 318
     15.11.1 Significance of Investment Framework ............. 319
     15.11.2 Reserve/Resources ................................ 319
     15.11.3 Reserve Adequacy ................................. 320
     15.11.4 Resource Requirement ............................. 320
     15.11.5 Discovery Trend .................................. 320
     15.11.6 A New Beginning .................................. 321
     15.11.7 Conclusions ...................................... 322
     Further Reading .......................................... 322
Refences ...................................................... 323
Index ......................................................... 325

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Документ изменен: Fri Jan 20 12:35:30 2017. Размер: 36,954 bytes.
Посещение N 188 c 26.01.2016