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ОбложкаNeutron scattering - fundamentals / ed. by F.Fernandez-Alonso, D.L. Price. - San Diego: Elsevier/AP, 2013. - xxiii, 545 p.: ill. - (Experimental methods in the physical sciences; vol.44). - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p. 529-545. - ISBN 978-0-12-398374-9
Шифр: (И/В38-N50) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Contributors ................................................... xi
Volumes in Series ............................................ xiii
Preface ...................................................... xvii
Symbols ....................................................... xxi

1    An Introduction to Neutron Scattering ...................... 1
     David L. Price and Felix Fernandez-Alonso
1.1  Fundamentals ............................................... 2
     1.1.1  Why Are Neutrons so Unique? ......................... 2
     1.1.2  Thermal Neutrons for Condensed Matter Research ...... 5
     1.1.3  Conservation Laws .................................. 11
     1.1.4  The Structure of Materials ......................... 11
     1.1.5  Adding Motion: Dynamics and Spectroscopy ........... 16
1.2  Scattering Foundations .................................... 22
     1.2.1  The Master Formula and Fermi's Golden Rule ......... 22
     1.2.2  Nuclear Scattering ................................. 25
     1.2.3  The Double Differential Cross Section in the Time
            Domain ............................................. 26
     1.2.4  Farewell to Nuclear Physics ........................ 27
     1.2.5  Coherent and Incoherent Scattering ................. 28
     1.2.6  Scattering Functions ............................... 30
1.3  Canonical Solids .......................................... 31
     1.3.1  Normal Modes of Vibration .......................... 31
     1.3.2  Scattering Under the Harmonic Approximation ........ 32
     1.3.3  Purely Elastic Events .............................. 33
     1.3.4  Inelastic (One-Phonon) Scattering .................. 35
     1.3.5  Multiphonon Scattering ............................. 39
     1.3.6  Beyond Harmonic Vibrations ......................... 41
1.4  Beyond Canonical Solids ................................... 42
     1.4.1  Space-Time (Van Hove) Correlation Functions ........ 42
     1.4.2  Pair Distribution Functions ........................ 43
     1.4.3  Properties of the Dynamic Structure Factor ......... 47
     1.4.4  From Order to Disorder: Diffuse Scattering ......... 58
     1.4.5  Stochastic Diffusion ............................... 61
     1.4.6  Beyond Atoms and Molecules: Large-Scale
            Structures ......................................... 75
1.5  Magnetic Structure and Polarized Neutrons ................. 82
     1.5.1  Basic Principles ................................... 82
     1.5.2  Polarized Neutrons ................................. 88
     1.5.3  Magnetic Bragg Scattering .......................... 95
     1.5.4  Diffuse Scattering from Magnetic Disorder .......... 97
     1.5.5  Large-Scale Magnetic Structures ................... 101
1.6  Spin Dynamics ............................................ 106
     1.6.1  Generalized Susceptibility ........................ 106
     1.6.2  Spin Waves ........................................ 108
     1.6.3  Crystal Fields and Magnetic Clusters .............. 111
     1.6.4  Spin Fluctuations ................................. 114
     1.6.5  Interband Transitions ............................. 115
     1.6.6  Critical Scattering ............................... 117
1.7  Nuclear Spin: Order and Disorder ......................... 120
     1.7.1  A Closer Look at Nuclear Spins .................... 121
     1.7.2  Scattering Cross Sections ......................... 121
     1.7.3  Uncorrelated and Correlated Spin Ensembles ........ 123
1.8  Outlook .................................................. 125
     References ............................................... 127

2    Neutron Sources .......................................... 137
     Francisco J. Bermejo and Fernando Sordo
2.1  Scope .................................................... 138
2.2  Useful Neutron Production Reactions ...................... 140
     2.2.1  Fission ........................................... 141
     2.2.2  Direct and Stripping Reactions .................... 142
     2.2.3  Bremsstrahlung .................................... 144
     2.2.4  Spallation Reactions .............................. 146
2.3  Neutron Slowing Down and Moderators ...................... 153
     2.3.1  Moderators ........................................ 158
2.4  Basic Building Blocks of Accelerators to Drive Neutron
     Sources .................................................. 166
     2.4.1  Beam Injectors .................................... 167
     2.4.2  Targets ........................................... 178
2.5  Accelerator-Driven Sources: Some Predecessors ............ 197
2.6  State-of-the-Art Accelerator Drivers for Neutron
     Sources .................................................. 199
     2.6.1  Last-Generation Megawatt-Range Sources ............ 199
     2.6.2  Medium-Power (100 kW) Sources ..................... 205
     2.6.3  Compact, Accelerator-Driven Sources ............... 209
2.7  Research Reactors ........................................ 212
     2.7.1  Core Designs ...................................... 213
     2.7.2  Reactor Vessel .................................... 217
2.8  Future Prospects ......................................... 219
     2.8.1  Accelerators ...................................... 219
     2.8.2  Hybrid Systems .................................... 225
     2.8.3  Reactors .......................................... 226
2.9  Nonneutron-Scattering Uses of Neutron Sources ............ 227
     2.9.1  Isotope Production, In-Vessel Irradiation,
            y-Radiation, and Neutron Activation Analysis ...... 228
     2.9.2  Nuclear Physics and Engineering: Astroparticle
            Physics, Nuclear Structure and Reactions, and
            Transmutation of Nuclear Waste .................... 228
     2.9.3  Hadron Physics: Neutrino-Related Phenomena ........ 229
     2.9.4  Fundamental Physics: Foundations of Quantum
            Mechanics, Effects of Gravity on Isolated
            Particles, Search for Dark Matter Using
            Ultracold Neutrons, Tests, and Validations of
            the Standard Model of Particle Physics ............ 230
     2.9.5  Use of Muon Beams for Condensed Matter and
            Fusion Research ................................... 231
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 231
     Appendix A Some Basic Relationships ...................... 232
     Appendix В The Transport Equation for Neutrons ........... 234
     References ............................................... 237

3    Experimental Techniques .................................. 245
     Masatoshi Arai
3.1  Introduction ............................................. 246
3.2  Scattering Measurements .................................. 247
     3.2.1  Cross Section ..................................... 247
     3.2.2  Integrated Intensity and the Lorentz Factor ....... 249
3.3  Useful Neutrons for Condensed Matter Science ............. 254
     3.3.1  Neutron Flux from Moderators ...................... 254
     3.3.2  Pulse Peak Structure .............................. 255
     3.3.3  Pulse Peak Width .................................. 257
     3.3.4  Choice of Parameters in Spallation Sources ........ 257
     3.3.5  High-Energy Neutron Background .................... 259
3.4  Diffraction Techniques ................................... 261
     3.4.1  Powder Diffraction ................................ 262
     3.4.2  Single-Crystal Diffractometers .................... 271
3.5  Inelastic Scattering Techniques .......................... 275
     3.5.1  Triple-Axis Spectrometer .......................... 275
     3.5.2  Chopper Instruments ............................... 277
     3.5.3  Inverted-Geometry Instrument ...................... 288
3.6  Instruments for Semi-Macroscopic Structures .............. 293
     3.6.1  Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Instruments ........ 293
     3.6.2  Neutron Spin-Echo Spectrometers ................... 296
3.7  Neutron Detectors ........................................ 300
     3.7.1  3He-Gas Detectors ................................. 301
     3.7.2  Scintillation Detectors ........................... 301
3.8  Beam Transport and Tailoring ............................. 305
     3.8.1  Neutron Optics .................................... 305
     3.8.2  Choppers .......................................... 313
     References ............................................... 318

4    Structure of Complex Materials ........................... 321
     Silvia C. Capelli
4.1  Introduction ............................................. 321
4.2  Useful Properties of Neutrons ............................ 324
     4.2.1  Neutron Scattering Length ......................... 324
     4.2.2  A Particle with a Mass ............................ 324
4.3  What can be Learnt from Neutron Diffraction
     Experiments? ............................................. 326
     4.3.1  Hydrogen Bonding .................................. 326
     4.3.2  Proton Migration .................................. 329
     4.3.3  Transition Metal Hydrides ......................... 332
     4.3.4  Porous Materials .................................. 333
     4.3.5  Diffuse Scattering ................................ 335
4.4  Outlook .................................................. 339
     4.4.1  Neutron Sources ................................... 339
     4.4.2  Neutron Optics .................................... 340
     4.4.3  Detectors ......................................... 341
     4.4.4  Samples and Sample Environment .................... 342
     4.4.5  Software .......................................... 347
4.5  Conclusions .............................................. 348
     References ............................................... 349

5    Large-Scale Structures ................................... 353
     Jeffrey Penfold and Ian M. Tucker
5.1  Introduction ............................................. 353
5.2  Experimental Details ..................................... 356
     5.2.1  Fundamentals of Neutron Reflectivity .............. 356
     5.2.2  Fundamentals of Small-Angle Neutron Scattering .... 358
     5.2.3  Experimental Details for Neutron Reflection ....... 361
     5.2.4  Experimental Details for SANS ..................... 363
5.3  Thin Films, Interfaces, and Solutions .................... 365
     5.3.1  Adsorption at the Air-Solution Interface .......... 365
     5.3.2  Adsorption at the Liquid-Solid Interface .......... 374
     5.3.3  Structure of Biological Membranes ................. 378
     5.3.4  Micelles .......................................... 382
     5.3.5  Lamellar Phases and Vesicles ...................... 385
     5.3.6  Colloidal Particles ............................... 392
     5.3.7  Polymers in Solution, Melt, and Thin Films ........ 394
     5.3.8  Proteins and Biomacromolecules in Solution and
            at Interfaces ..................................... 404
5.4  Summary and Future Prospects ............................. 409
     References ............................................... 409

6    Dynamics of Atoms and Molecules .......................... 415
     Mark R. Johnson and Gordon J. Kearley
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 416
6.2  Brief Review of Theoretical Concepts ..................... 418
6.3  Modeling ................................................. 419
     6.3.1  Mapping Potential Energy Surfaces ................. 419
     6.3.2  Molecular Dynamics Simulation ..................... 420
     6.3.3  Empirical and Ab Initio Energy Calculation ........ 420
6.4  Instrumentation .......................................... 422
     6.4.1  Three-Axis Spectrometers .......................... 422
     6.4.2  Time of Flight .................................... 422
     6.4.3  Neutron Compton Scattering Spectrometers .......... 423
     6.4.4  Molecular Spectrometers ........................... 424
     6.4.5  Backscattering Spectrometers ...................... 425
     6.4.6  Neutron Spin-echo Instruments ..................... 426
     6.4.7  The Measured Neutron-Scattering Signal ............ 427
6.5  Oscillatory Motion, Incoherent Scattering ................ 427
     6.5.1  Molecular Vibrations of Benzene ................... 429
     6.5.2  Hydrogen-Bonded Systems ........................... 430
     6.5.3  Complex Hydrides .................................. 431
     6.5.4  Polymers .......................................... 433
6.6  Oscillatory Motion, Coherent Scattering .................. 434
     6.6.1  Classic Phonons and Soft Modes in SrTiO3 .......... 435
     6.6.2  Negative Thermal Expansion ........................ 435
     6.6.3  Nanostructured Materials .......................... 438
     6.6.4  Oxygen-Ion Conductors—Brownmillerites ............. 439
     6.6.5  Thermoelectrics—Skutterudites ..................... 441
     6.6.6  Pnictides ......................................... 442
     6.6.7  Strontium Gallium Oxides .......................... 443
     6.6.8  Deoxyribonucleic acid ............................. 445
6.7  Tunneling ................................................ 446
     6.7.1  Rotational Tunneling .............................. 446
     6.7.2  Translational Tunneling ........................... 453
6.8  Stochastic Relaxation/Dynamics ........................... 453
     6.8.1  Complex Diffusion ................................. 455
     6.8.2  Ligand Water Rotation ............................. 456
     6.8.3  Coherent QENS, Rotation ........................... 456
     6.8.4  Dynamical Transitions from Elastic Scans .......... 457
     6.8.5  Diffusion of Coherent Scatterer CO2 ............... 459
     6.8.6  Water and Complex Diffusion ....................... 460
     6.8.7  Ionic Liquids ..................................... 463
6.9  Conclusion and Perspectives .............................. 464
     References ............................................... 466

Appendix: Neutron Scattering Lengths and Cross Sections ....... 471
Javier Dawidowski, José R. Granada, Javier R. Santisteban,
Florencia Cantargi, and Luis A. Rodriguez Palomino
A.1  Introduction ............................................. 471
A.2  Theoretical Background ................................... 472
     A.2.1  Scattering Length ................................. 472
     A.2.2  Spin-Dependent Scattering Lengths ................. 476
     A.2.3  Neutron-Atom Interactions ......................... 477
A.3  Methods of Measurement of Scattering Lengths ............. 482
     A.3.1  Transmission ...................................... 482
     A.3.2  Bragg Diffraction ................................. 484
     A.3.3  Dynamical Diffraction ............................. 486
     A.3.4  Prism Refraction .................................. 488
     A.3.5  Christiansen Filter ............................... 489
     A.3.6  Neutron Gravity Refractometer ..................... 490
     A.3.7  Neutron Interferometry ............................ 491
     A.3.8  Small-Angle Scattering ............................ 492
     A.3.9  Total Reflection .................................. 493
     A.3.10 Pseudomagnetic Method ............................. 493
     A.3.11 High-Energy Experiments ........................... 494
A.4  Tables of Neutron Scattering Lengths and Cross Sections .. 495
     References ............................................... 527

Index ......................................................... 529

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