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ОбложкаOpenGL® programming guide: the official guide to learning OpenGL®, version 4.3 / D.Shreiner, G.Sellers, J.Kessenich, B.Licea-Kane.; the Khronos OpenGL ARB Working Group. - 8th ed. - Upper Saddle River: Addison-Wesley, 2013. - xlvi, 935 p.: ill., tab. - Ind.: p.919-935. - ISBN 978-0-321-77303-6
Шифр: (И/З.973.2-O.63) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Figures ..................................................... xxiii
Tables ....................................................... xxix
Examples ................................................... xxxiii
About This Guide .............................................. xli
What This Guide Contains ...................................... xli
What's New in This Edition .................................. xliii
What You Should Know Before Reading This Guide .............. xliii
How to Obtain the Sample Code .................................xliv
Errata ........................................................ xlv
Style Conventions ............................................. xlv
1  Introduction to OpenGL ....................................... 1
   What Is OpenGL? .............................................. 2
   Your First Look at an OpenGL Program ......................... 3
   OpenGL Syntax ................................................ 8
   OpenGL's Rendering Pipeline ................................. 10
      Preparing to Send Data to OpenGL ......................... 11
      Sending Data to OpenGL ................................... 11
      Vertex Shading ........................................... 12
      Tessellation Shading ..................................... 12
      Geometry Shading ......................................... 12
      Primitive Assembly ....................................... 12
      Clipping ................................................. 13
      Rasterization ............................................ 13
      Fragment Shading ......................................... 13
      Per-Fragment Operations .................................. 13
   Our First Program: A Detailed Discussion .................... 14
      Entering main() .......................................... 14
      OpenGL Initialization .................................... 16
      Our First OpenGL Rendering ............................... 28
2  Shader Fundamentals ......................................... 33
   Shaders and OpenGL .......................................... 34
   OpenGL's Programmable Pipeline .............................. 35
   An Overview of the OpenGL Shading Language .................. 37
      Creating Shaders with GLSL ............................... 37
      Storage Qualifiers ....................................... 45
      Statements ............................................... 49
      Computational Invariance ................................. 54
      Shader Preprocessor ...................................... 56
      Compiler Control ......................................... 58
      Global Shader-Compilation Option ......................... 59
   Interface Blocks ............................................ 60
      Uniform Blocks ........................................... 61
      Specifying Uniform Blocks in Shaders ..................... 61
      Accessing Uniform Blocks from Your Application ........... 63
      Buffer Blocks ............................................ 69
      In/Out Blocks ............................................ 70
   Compiling Shaders ........................................... 70
      Our LoadShaders() Function ............................... 76
   Shader Subroutines .......................................... 76
      GLSL Subroutine Setup .................................... 77
      Selecting Shader Subroutines ............................. 78
   Separate Shader Objects ..................................... 81
3  Drawing with OpenGL ......................................... 85
   OpenGL Graphics Primitives .................................. 86
      Points ................................................... 87
      Lines, Strips, and Loops ................................. 88
      Triangles, Strips, and Fans .............................. 89
   Data in OpenGL Buffers ...................................... 92
      Creating and Allocating Buffers .......................... 92
      Getting Data into and out of Buffers ..................... 95
      Accessing the Content of Buffers ........................ 100
      Discarding Buffer Data .................................. 107
   Vertex Specification ....................................... 108
      Vertex Attrib Pointer in Depth .......................... 108
      Static Vertex-Attribute Specification ................... 112
   OpenGL Drawing Commands .................................... 115
      Restarting Primitives ................................... 124
   Instanced Rendering ........................................ 128
      Instanced Vertex Attributes ............................. 129
      Using the Instance Counter in Shaders ................... 136
      Instancing Redux ........................................ 139
4  Color, Pixels, and Framebuffers ............................ 141
   Basic Color Theory ......................................... 142
   Buffers and Their Uses ..................................... 144
      Clearing Buffers ........................................ 146
      Masking Buffers ......................................... 147
   Color and OpenGL ........................................... 148
      Color Representation and OpenGL ......................... 149
      Vertex Colors ........................................... 150
      Rasterization ........................................... 153
   Multisampling .............................................. 153
      Sample Shading .......................................... 155
   Testing and Operating on Fragments ......................... 156
      Scissor Test ............................................ 157
      Multisample Fragment Operations ......................... 158
      Stencil Test ............................................ 159
      Stencil Examples ........................................ 161
      Depth Test .............................................. 163
      Blending ................................................ 166
      Blending Factors ........................................ 167
      Controlling Blending Factors ............................ 167
      The Blending Equation ................................... 170
      Dithering ............................................... 171
      Logical Operations ...................................... 171
      Occlusion Query ......................................... 173
      Conditional Rendering ................................... 176
   Per-Primitive Antialiasing ................................. 178
      Antialiasing Lines ...................................... 179
      Antialiasing Polygons ................................... 180
   Framebuffer Objects ........................................ 180
      Renderbuffers ........................................... 183
      Creating Renderbuffer Storage ........................... 185
      Framebuffer Attachments ................................. 187
      Framebuffer Completeness ................................ 190
      Invalidating Framebuffers ............................... 192
   Writing to Multiple Renderbuffers Simultaneously ........... 193
      Selecting Color Buffers for Writing and Reading ......... 195
      Dual-Source Blending .................................... 198
   Reading and Copying Pixel Data ............................. 200
   Copying Pixel Rectangles ................................... 203
5  Viewing Transformations, Clipping, and Feedback ............ 205
   Viewing .................................................... 206
      Viewing Model ........................................... 207
      Camera Model ............................................ 207
      Orthographic Viewing Model .............................. 212
   User Transformations ....................................... 212
      Matrix Multiply Refresher ............................... 214
      Homogeneous Coordinates ................................. 215
      Linear Transformations and Matrices ..................... 219
      Transforming Normals .................................... 231
      OpenGL Matrices ......................................... 232
   OpenGL Transformations ..................................... 236
      Advanced: User Clipping ................................. 238
   Transform Feedback ......................................... 239
      Transform Feedback Objects .............................. 239
      Transform Feedback Buffers .............................. 241
      Configuring Transform Feedback Varyings ................. 244
      Starting and Stopping Transform Feedback ................ 250
      Transform Feedback Example—Particle System .............. 252
6  Textures ................................................... 259
   Texture Mapping ............................................ 261
   Basic Texture Types ........................................ 262
   Creating and Initializing Textures ......................... 263
      Texture Formats ......................................... 270
   Proxy Textures ............................................. 276
   Specifying Texture Data .................................... 277
      Explicitly Setting Texture Data ......................... 277
      Using Pixel Unpack Buffers .............................. 280
      Copying Data from the Framebuffer ....................... 281
      Loading Images from Files ............................... 282
      Retrieving Texture Data ................................. 287
      Texture Data Layout ..................................... 288
   Sampler Objects ............................................ 292
      Sampler Parameters ...................................... 294
   Using Textures ............................................. 295
      Texture Coordinates ..................................... 298
      Arranging Texture Data .................................. 302
      Using Multiple Textures ................................. 303
   Complex Texture Types ...................................... 306
      3D Textures ............................................. 307
      Array Textures .......................................... 309
      Cube-Map Textures ....................................... 309
      Shadow Samplers ......................................... 317
      Depth-Stencil Textures .................................. 318
      Buffer Textures ......................................... 319
   Texture Views .............................................. 321
   Compressed Textures ........................................ 326
   Filtering .................................................. 329
      Linear Filtering ........................................ 330
      Using and Generating Mipmaps ............................ 333
      Calculating the Mipmap Level ............................ 338
      Mipmap Level-of-Detail Control .......................... 339
   Advanced Texture Lookup Functions .......................... 340
      Explicit Level of Detail ................................ 340
      Explicit Gradient Specification ......................... 340
      Texture Fetch with Offsets .............................. 341
      Projective Texturing .................................... 342
      Texture Queries in Shaders .............................. 343
      Gathering Texels ........................................ 345
      Combining Special Functions ............................. 345
   Point Sprites .............................................. 346
      Textured Point Sprites .................................. 347
      Controlling the Appearance of Points .................... 350
   Rendering to Texture Maps .................................. 351
      Discarding Rendered Data ................................ 354
   Chapter Summary ............................................ 356
      Texture Redux ........................................... 356
      Texture Best Practices .................................. 357
7  Light and Shadow ........................................... 359
   Lighting Introduction ...................................... 360
   Classic Lighting Model ..................................... 361
      Fragment Shaders for Different Light Styles ............. 362
      Moving Calculations to the Vertex Shader ................ 373
      Multiple Lights and Materials ........................... 376
      Lighting Coordinate Systems ............................. 383
      Limitations of the Classic Lighting Model ............... 383
   Advanced Lighting Models ................................... 384
      Hemisphere Lighting ..................................... 384
      Image-Based Lighting .................................... 389
      Lighting with Spherical Harmonics ....................... 395
   Shadow Mapping ............................................. 400
      Creating a Shadow Map ................................... 401
8  Procedural Texturing ....................................... 411
   Procedural Texturing ....................................... 412
      Regular Patterns ........................................ 414
      Toy Ball ................................................ 422
      Lattice ................................................. 431
      Procedural Shading Summary .............................. 432
   Bump Mapping ............................................... 433
      Application Setup ....................................... 436
      Vertex Shader ........................................... 438
      Fragment Shader ......................................... 439
      Normal Maps ............................................. 441
   Antialiasing Procedural Textures ........................... 442
      Sources of Aliasing ..................................... 442
      Avoiding Aliasing ....................................... 444
      Increasing Resolution ................................... 445
      Antialiasing High Frequencies ........................... 447
      Frequency Clamping ...................................... 457
      Procedural Antialiasing Summary ......................... 459
   Noise ...................................................... 460
      Definition of Noise ..................................... 461
      Noise Textures .......................................... 468
      Trade-offs .............................................. 471
      A Simple Noise Shader ................................... 472
      Turbulence .............................................. 475
      Marble .................................................. 477
      Granite ................................................. 478
      Wood .................................................... 478
      Noise Summary ........................................... 483
   Further Information ........................................ 483
9  Tessellation Shaders ....................................... 485
   Tessellation Shaders ....................................... 486
   Tessellation Patches ....................................... 487
   Tessellation Control Shaders ............................... 488
      Generating Output-Patch Vertices ........................ 489
      Tessellation Control Shader Variables ................... 490
      Controlling Tessellation ................................ 491
   Tessellation Evaluation Shaders ............................ 496
      Specifying the Primitive Generation Domain .............. 497
      Specifying the Face Winding for Generated Primitives .... 497
      Specifying the Spacing of Tessellation Coordinates ...... 498
      Additional Tessellation Evaluation Shader layout
      Options ................................................. 498
      Specifying a Vertex's Position .......................... 498
      Tessellation Evaluation Shader Variables ................ 499
   A Tessellation Example: The Teapot ......................... 500
      Processing Patch Input Vertices ......................... 501
      Evaluating Tessellation Coordinates for the Teapot ...... 501
   Additional Tessellation Techniques ......................... 504
      View-Dependent Tessellation ............................. 504
      Shared Tessellated Edges and Cracking ................... 506
      Displacement Mapping .................................... 507
10 Geometry Shaders ........................................... 509
   Creating a Geometry Shader ................................. 510
   Geometry Shader Inputs and Outputs ......................... 514
      Geometry Shader Inputs .................................. 514
      Special Geometry Shader Primitives ...................... 517
      Geometry Shader Outputs ................................. 523
      Producing Primitives .................................... 525
      Culling Geometry ........................................ 525
      Geometry Amplification .................................. 527
   Advanced Transform Feedback ................................ 532
      Multiple Output Streams ................................. 533
      Primitive Queries ....................................... 537
      Using Transform Feedback Results ........................ 539
   Geometry Shader Instancing ................................. 549
   Multiple Viewports and Layered Rendering ................... 550
      Viewport Index .......................................... 550
      Layered Rendering ....................................... 556
   Chapter Summary ............................................ 559
      Geometry Shader Redux ................................... 560
      Geometry Shader Best Practices .......................... 561
11 Memory ..................................................... 563
   Using Textures for Generic Data Storage .................... 564
      Binding Textures to Image Units ......................... 569
      Reading from and Writing to Images ...................... 572
   Shader Storage Buffer Objects .............................. 576
      Writing Structured Data ................................. 577
   Atomic Operations and Synchronization ...................... 578
      Atomic Operations on Images ............................. 578
      Atomic Operations on Buffers ............................ 587
      Sync Objects ............................................ 589
      Image Qualifiers and Barriers ........................... 593
      High Performance Atomic Counters ........................ 605
   Example .................................................... 609
      Order-Independent Transparency .......................... 609
12 Compute Shaders ............................................ 623
   Overview ................................................... 624
   Workgroups and Dispatch .................................... 625
      Knowing Where You Are ................................... 630
   Communication and Synchronization .......................... 632
      Communication ........................................... 633
      Synchronization ......................................... 634
   Examples ................................................... 636
      Physical Simulation ..................................... 636
      Image Processing ........................................ 642
   Chapter Summary ............................................ 647
      Compute Shader Redux .................................... 647
      Compute Shader Best Practices ........................... 648
A  Basics of GLUT: The  OpenGL Utility Toolkit ................ 651
   Initializing and Creating a Window ......................... 652
   Accessing Functions ........................................ 654
   Handling Window and Input Events ........................... 655
   Managing a Background Process .............................. 658
   Running the Program ........................................ 658
B  OpenGL ES and WebGL ........................................ 659
   OpenGL ES .................................................. 660
   WebGL ...................................................... 662
      Setting up WebGL within an HTML5 page ................... 662
      Initializing Shaders in WebGL ........................... 664
      Initializing Vertex Data in WebGL ....................... 667
      Using Texture Maps in WebGL ............................. 668
C  Built-in GLSL Variables and Functions ...................... 673
   Built-in Variables ......................................... 674
      Built-in Variable Declarations .......................... 674
      Built-in Variable Descriptions .......................... 676
   Built-in Constants ......................................... 684
   Built-in Functions ......................................... 686
      Angle and Trigonometry Functions ........................ 688
      Exponential Functions ................................... 690
      Common Functions ........................................ 692
      Floating-Point Pack and Unpack Functions ................ 698
      Geometric Functions ..................................... 700
      Matrix Functions ........................................ 702
      Vector Relational Functions ............................. 703
      Integer Functions ....................................... 705
      Texture Functions ....................................... 708
      Atomic-Counter Functions ................................ 722
      Atomic Memory Functions ................................. 723
      Image Functions ......................................... 725
      Fragment Processing Functions ........................... 729
      Noise Functions ......................................... 731
      Geometry Shader Functions ............................... 732
      Shader Invocation Control Functions ..................... 734
      Shader Memory Control Functions ......................... 734
D  State Variables ............................................ 737
   The Query Commands ......................................... 738
   OpenGL State Variables ..................................... 745
      Current Values and Associated Data ...................... 746
      Vertex Array Object State ............................... 747
      Vertex Array Data ....................................... 749
      Buffer Object State ..................................... 750
      Transformation State .................................... 751
      Coloring State .......................................... 752
      Rasterization State ..................................... 753
      Multisampling ........................................... 755
      Textures ................................................ 756
      Textures ................................................ 759
      Textures ................................................ 762
      Textures ................................................ 764
      Texture Environment ..................................... 766
      Pixel Operations ........................................ 767
      Framebuffer Controls .................................... 770
      Framebuffer State ....................................... 771
      Framebuffer State ....................................... 772
      Frambuffer State ........................................ 773
      Renderbuffer State ...................................... 775
      Renderbuffer State ...................................... 776
      Pixel State ............................................. 778
      Shader Object State ..................................... 781
      Shader Program Pipeline Object State .................... 782
      Shader Program Object State ............................. 783
      Program Interface State ................................. 793
      Program Object Resource State ........................... 794
      Vertex and Geometry Shader State ........................ 797
      Query Object State ...................................... 797
      Image State ............................................. 798
      Transform Feedback State ................................ 799
      Atomic Counter State .................................... 800
      Shader Storage Buffer State ............................. 801
      Sync Object State ....................................... 802
      Hints ................................................... 803
      Compute Dispatch State .................................. 803
      Implementation-Dependent Values ......................... 804
      Tessellation Shader Implementation-Dependent Limits ..... 810
      Geometry Shader Implementation-Dependent Limits ......... 813
      Fragment Shader Implementation-Dependent Limits ......... 815
      Implementation-Dependent Compute Shader Limits .......... 816
      Implementation-Dependent Shader Limits .................. 818
      Implementation-Dependent Debug Output State ............. 823
      Implementation-Dependent Values ......................... 824
      Internal Format-Dependent Values ........................ 826
      Implementation-Dependent Transform Feedback Limits ...... 826
      Framebuffer-Dependent Values ............................ 827
      Miscellaneous ........................................... 827
E  Homogeneous Coordinates and Transformation Matrices ........ 829
   Homogeneous Coordinates .................................... 830
      Transforming Vertices ................................... 830
      Transforming Normals .................................... 831
   Transformation Matrices .................................... 831
      Translation ............................................. 832
      Scaling ................................................. 832
      Rotation ................................................ 832
      Perspective Projection .................................. 834
      Orthographic Projection ................................. 834
F  OpenGL and Window Systems .................................. 835
   Accessing New OpenGL Functions ............................. 836
      GLEW: The OpenGL Extension Wrangler ..................... 837
   GLX: OpenGL Extension for the X Window System .............. 838
      Initialization .......................................... 839
      Controlling Rendering ................................... 840
      GLX Prototypes .......................................... 842
   WGL: OpenGL Extensions for Microsoft Windows ............... 845
      Initialization .......................................... 846
      Controlling Rendering ................................... 846
      WGL Prototypes .......................................... 848
   OpenGL in Mac OS X: The Core OpenGL (CGL) API and the
      NSOpenGL Classes ........................................ 850
   Mac OS X's Core OpenGL Library ............................. 851
      Initialization .......................................... 851
      Controlling Rendering ................................... 852
      CGL Prototypes .......................................... 852
   The NSOpenGL Classes ....................................... 854
      Initialization .......................................... 854
G  Floating-Point Formats for Textures, Framebuffers, and
   Renderbuffers .............................................. 857
   Reduced-Precision Floating-Point Values .................... 858
   16-bit Floating-Point Values ............................... 858
   10- and 11-bit Unsigned Floating-Point Values .............. 860
H  Debugging and Profiling OpenGL ............................. 865
   Creating a Debug Context ................................... 866
   Debug Output ............................................... 868
      Debug Messages .......................................... 869
      Filtering Messages ...................................... 872
      Application-Generated Messages .......................... 874
   Debug Groups ............................................... 875
      Naming Objects .......................................... 877
I  Profiling .................................................. 879
      Profiling Tools ......................................... 879
      In-Application Profiling ................................ 881
   Buffer Object Layouts ...................................... 885
   Using Standard Layout Qualifiers ........................... 886
   The stdl40 Layout Rules .................................... 886
   The std430 Layout Rules .................................... 887

Glossary ...................................................... 889
Index ......................................................... 919

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