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ОбложкаPoisel R.A. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems. - Boston; London: Artech House, 2014. - xxiii, 807 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.803-807. - ISBN 978-1-60807-841-7
Шифр: (И/Ц-P78) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ....................................................... xxi

Chapter 1  Receiving Systems and Receiving System
Architectures ................................................... 1
1.1  Introduction ............................................... 1
1.2  Electronic Support Systems ................................. 2
     1.2.1  Electronic Support .................................. 2
     1.2.2  Command and Control ................................. 3
1.3  The Electromagnetic Spectrum ............................... 4
1.4  Receiving System Architectures ............................. 4
     1.4.1  Fundamental Receiving System Model .................. 5
1.5  Monitor Receivers .......................................... 8
     1.5.1  Concept of the Superhet Receiver .................... 8
1.6  Search Receiver Architectures ............................. 10
     1.6.1  Scanning Narrowband Receiver ....................... 10
     1.6.2  Compressive Receiver ............................... 11
     1.6.3  Digital Transform Receiver ......................... 14
     1.6.4  Receiver Considerations ............................ 15
1.7  Key System Performance Parameters ......................... 16
     1.7.1  Noise Figure ....................................... 16
     1.7.2  Sensitivity ........................................ 17
     1.7.3  Selectivity ........................................ 17
     1.7.4  Dynamic Range ...................................... 17
     1.7.5  Other Significant Parameters ....................... 17
1.8  Spread Spectrum ........................................... 18
     1.8.1  FHSS ............................................... 19
     1.8.2  DSSS ............................................... 19
     1.8.3  THSS ............................................... 19
1.9  Collection Management ..................................... 20
     1.9.1  The Collection Management Process .................. 20
1.10 Concluding Remarks ........................................ 22
Appendix 1. A Collection Management Process Output Products .... 23
     1.A.1  Asset Evaluation Worksheet ......................... 23
     1.A.2  Intelligence Synchronization Matrix ................ 23
References ..................................................... 26

Chapter 2  Signals and Modulation Systems ...................... 27
2.1  Introduction .............................................. 27
2.2  Representing Signals ...................................... 28
2.3  Complex Signals and Systems ............................... 29
     2.3.1  Introduction ....................................... 29
     2.3.2  Basic Concepts and Definitions ..................... 30
     2.3.3  Analytic Signals and Hilbert Transforms ............ 31
     2.3.4  Frequency Translations and Mixing .................. 33
     2.3.5  Complex Signals and Sampling ....................... 36
     2.3.6  Summary ............................................ 38
2.4  System Definition ......................................... 39
2.5  Modulations ............................................... 42
     2.5.1  Analog Modulations ................................. 42
     2.5.2  Modern Digital Modulations ......................... 54
2.6  Random Modulation ......................................... 67
     2.6.1  Stationary Processes ............................... 68
     2.6.2  Random Modulation .................................. 73
     2.6.3  Summary ............................................ 84
2.7  Access Methods ............................................ 84
     2.7.1  TDMA ............................................... 85
     2.7.2  FDMA ............................................... 86
     2.7.3  CDMA ............................................... 86
     2.7.4  SDMA ............................................... 88
2.8  Pulse-Shaping Filters ..................................... 90
     2.8.1  Rectangular Pulse .................................. 91
     2.8.2  Shaped Pulses ...................................... 91
2.9  Concluding Remarks ........................................ 95
     References ................................................ 96

Chapter 3  RF Stage ............................................ 97
3.1  Introduction .............................................. 97
3.2  Normalized Input Referred Added Noise ..................... 98
3.3  Noise Factor/Figure ...................................... 101
3.4  Low Noise Amplifiers ..................................... 104
     3.4.1  Introduction ...................................... 104
     3.4.2  Minimum Noise Factor .............................. 106
     3.4.3  LNA Gain .......................................... 108
     3.4.4  BJT LNA ........................................... 109
     3.4.5  MOSFET LNA ........................................ 112
     3.4.6  Input Matching .................................... 116
     3.4.7  LNA Stability ..................................... 135
     3.4.8  LNA Nonlinearity Model ............................ 140
3.5  Noise Reduction with an Input Transformer ................ 142
3.6  Band Select Filtering/Preselector Filters ................ 145
     3.6.1  Roofing Filters ................................... 146
3.7  Concluding Remarks ....................................... 147
     References ............................................... 147

Chapter 4  Bandwidth Expansion for Small Signal Amplifiers .... 149
4.1  Introduction ............................................. 149
4.2  Shunt Peaking ............................................ 150
4.3  Input and Output Matching ................................ 153
     4.3.1  Bandwidth Enhancement for Transimpedance
            Amplifiers ........................................ 153
     4.3.2  Limits to Bandwidth Enhancement ................... 153
4.4  Lossy Matching ........................................... 161
     4.4.1  Performance Parameters ............................ 161
     4.4.2  Practical Considerations .......................... 167
     4.4.3  Summary ........................................... 167
4.5  Feedback ................................................. 167
     4.5.1  Shunt-Series Feedback ............................. 167
     4.5.2  Shunt Feedback .................................... 170
     4.5.3  Bandwidth Extension ............................... 171
4.6  Balanced Amplifiers ...................................... 172
     4.6.1  Coupling .......................................... 176
4.7  Distributed Amplifier .................................... 183
4.8  Concluding Remarks ....................................... 185
     References ............................................... 186

Chapter 5  RF Mixers and Mixing ............................... 189
5.1  Introduction ............................................. 189
5.2  RF Mixers ................................................ 190
     5.2.1  Introduction ...................................... 190
     5.2.2  Nonlinear Mixers .................................. 191
     5.2.3  Analog Mixing ..................................... 192
     5.2.4  Large Signal Mixer Performance .................... 193
     5.2.5  Switching or Sampling Mixers ...................... 197
     5.2.6  Some Passive Mixers ............................... 205
     5.2.7  Some Active Mixers ................................ 211
     5.2.8  Isolation ......................................... 218
     5.2.9  Conversion Gain ................................... 218
     5.2.10 Mixer Noise ....................................... 219
     5.2.11 Image Reject Filtering ............................ 220
     5.2.12 Summary ........................................... 231
5.3  Local Oscillators ........................................ 231
     5.3.1  Characteristics of Feedback ....................... 233
     5.3.2  Fundamental Oscillator Types ...................... 238
     5.3.3  Crystal Oscillators ............................... 240
     5.3.4  Microelectromechanical Oscillators ................ 245
     5.3.5  Phase Locked Loops ................................ 246
     5.3.6  Frequency Synthesizers ............................ 255
     5.3.7  Oscillator Phase Noise ............................ 260
     5.3.8  Oscillator Stability .............................. 269
5.4  Concluding Remarks ....................................... 271
     References ............................................... 271

Chapter 6  IF Amplifiers ...................................... 273
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 273
6.2  Amplifier Input and Output Impedances and Gain ........... 273
6.3  RF Amplifiers ............................................ 277
     6.3.1  EW RF Amplifier Analysis .......................... 277
     6.3.2  BJT IF Amplifiers ................................. 285
     6.3.3  MOSFET High Frequency Amplifiers .................. 286
     6.3.4  Frequency Response of RF Amplifiers ............... 287
     6.3.5  Microwave Tubes ................................... 290
6.4  Transformer Coupling ..................................... 291
6.5  Automatic Gain Control ................................... 293
     6.5.1  Introduction ...................................... 293
     6.5.2  VGA Types ......................................... 294
     6.5.3  Loop Dynamics ..................................... 296
     6.5.4  Detector Types .................................... 296
     6.5.5  Operating Level of Detector ....................... 299
6.6  Concluding Remarks ....................................... 300
     References ............................................... 300

Chapter 7  IF Filters ......................................... 301
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 301
7.2  Filters and Signals ...................................... 302
7.3  Basic Filter Types ....................................... 303
     7.3.1  Transfer Functions ................................ 303
     7.3.2  Brick-Wall Filter ................................. 309
     7.3.3  Bandpass .......................................... 310
     7.3.4  Notch or Bandstop ................................. 311
     7.3.5  Lowpass ........................................... 313
     7.3.6  Highpass .......................................... 314
     7.3.7  All-Pass or Phase-Shift ........................... 315
     7.3.8  Higher-Order Filters .............................. 316
7.4  Filter Approximations .................................... 319
     7.4.1  Introduction ...................................... 319
     7.4.2  Butterworth ....................................... 322
     7.4.3  Chebyshev ......................................... 323
     7.4.4  Bessel ............................................ 327
     7.4.5  Elliptic (Cauer) .................................. 330
7.5  Approaches to Implementing Filters ....................... 331
     7.5.1  Passive Filters ................................... 332
     7.5.2  Surface Acoustic Wave Filters ..................... 347
     7.5.3  Crystal Filters ................................... 350
     7.5.4  Ceramic RF and IF Filters ......................... 356
     7.5.5  MEMS RF Filters ................................... 359
7.6  Concluding Remarks ....................................... 362
     References ............................................... 362

Chapter 8  Narrowband Receivers ............................... 363
8.1  Introduction ............................................. 363
8.2  Superheterodyne Receivers ................................ 364
     8.2.1  Superheterodyne Receiver History .................. 365
     8.2.2  Mixing and the Superhet Receiver .................. 366
     8.2.3  Images in the Superhet Receiver ................... 366
     8.2.4  IF Frequencies .................................... 366
     8.2.5  Superhet Receiver Block Diagram ................... 368
8.3  Homodyne (Zero-IF) Receiver .............................. 373
     8.3.1  Concept of the DCR ................................ 373
     8.3.2  Overview of DC Offsets in DCRs .................... 375
     8.3.3  Noise in Direct Conversion Receivers .............. 377
8.4  Tuned Radio Frequency Receivers .......................... 378
8.5  Concluding Remarks ....................................... 380
     References ............................................... 380

Chapter 9  Compressive Receivers .............................. 381
9.1  Introduction ............................................. 381
9.2  Compressive Receiver Configurations ...................... 381
     9.2.1  C-M-C and M-C-M Configurations .................... 383
9.3  Fundamentals of CxRx Operation ........................... 384
     9.3.1  The M(s)-C(l)-M Arrangement ....................... 385
9.4  Dispersive Delay Lines ................................... 387
     9.4.1  Limitations of Practical SAW Devices .............. 389
9.5  M-C CxRx Operation ....................................... 390
     9.5.1  Swept Local Oscillator ............................ 393
     9.5.2  Frequency Resolution .............................. 395
     9.5.3  Frequency Accuracy ................................ 397
     9.5.4  Sensitivity and Compression Time .................. 397
     9.5.5  Simultaneous Signal Detection ..................... 399
     9.5.6  CxRx Response ..................................... 399
9.6  The C-M-C Chirp Transform Arrangement .................... 406
9.7  Concluding Remarks ....................................... 407
     References ............................................... 408

Chapter 10  Digital Receivers Overview ........................ 409
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 409
10.2 Digital Receiver Architectures ........................... 410
     10.2.1 Narrowband Digital Receiver ....................... 410
     10.2.2 Digital RF Architecture ........................... 412
     10.2.3 IF Sampling Topology .............................. 412
     10.2.4 Electronic Warfare Digital Receiver ............... 413
10.3 Digital Receiver Technology Drivers ...................... 414
     10.3.1 Analog-to-Digital Converter ....................... 414
     10.3.2 Digital Signal Processor .......................... 414
10.4 Elementary Introduction to RF/IF Digital Signal
     Processing ............................................... 415
     10.4.1 Frequency-Domain Ambiguity ........................ 416
     10.4.2 Quadrature Signals ................................ 418
     10.4.3 Summary ........................................... 424
10.5 Digital EW Receivers ..................................... 424
     10.5.1 Introduction ...................................... 424
     10.5.2 Single-Signal versus Multisignal .................. 425
     10.5.3 Benefits of Implementing a Digital Receiver ....... 425
     10.5.4 Receiver Performance Expectations ................. 430
     10.5.5 Available Noise Power ............................. 430
     10.5.6 Cascaded Noise Figure ............................. 431
     10.5.7 Noise Figures and ADCs ............................ 432
     10.5.8 Conversion Gain and Sensitivity ................... 433
     10.5.9 ADC Spurious Signals and Dither ................... 435
     10.5.10 Third-Order Intercept Point ...................... 437
     10.5.11 ADC Clock Jitter ................................. 438
     10.5.12 Phase Noise ...................................... 440
     10.5.13 Summary .......................................... 441
10.6 Gain and Phase Imbalance ................................. 442
10.7 Concluding Remarks ....................................... 443
     References ............................................... 444

Chapter 11  Sampling and Analog-to-Digital Converters ......... 445
11.1 Introduction ............................................. 445
11.2 Wideband Receivers ....................................... 446
     11.2.1 Channelized ....................................... 448
11.3 Sampling Methods and Analog Filtering .................... 448
     11.3.1 Nyquist Sampling .................................. 449
     11.3.2 Bandpass Sampling ................................. 453
11.4 Effects of Quantization Noise, Distortion, and Receiver
     Noise .................................................... 458
     11.4.1 Introduction ...................................... 458
     11.4.2 ADC Transfer Function ............................. 459
     11.4.3 Input-Referred Noise .............................. 459
     11.4.4 Theoretical Signal-to-Noise Ratio ................. 460
     11.4.5 Practical Specifications for Real ADCs ............ 461
     11.4.6 ADC Noises ........................................ 461
     11.4.7 Spurious-Free Dynamic Range ....................... 472
     11.4.8 Noise Power Ratio ................................. 475
11.5 Flash ADC ................................................ 476
     11.5.1 Flash ADC Architecture ............................ 477
     11.5.2 Sparkle Codes ..................................... 478
     11.5.3 Metastability ..................................... 478
     11.5.4 Input Signal Frequency Dependence ................. 478
11.6 Sigma-Delta ADCs ......................................... 479
     11.6.1 Introduction ...................................... 479
     11.6.2 Σ-Δ ADC Operation ................................. 480
     11.6.3 Higher Order Loop Considerations .................. 484
     11.6.4 Multibit Sigma-Delta Converters ................... 486
     11.6.5 Bandpass Sigma-Delta Converters ................... 486
11.7 Flash ADC versus Other ADC Architectures ................. 487
     11.7.1 Flash versus SAR ADCs ............................. 487
     11.7.2 Flash versus Pipelined ADCs ....................... 488
     11.7.3 Flash versus Integrating ADCs ..................... 489
     11.7.4 Flash versus Sigma-Delta ADCs ..................... 489
     11.7.5 Flash ADC Architectural Tradeoffs ................. 490
     11.7.6 Flash Converter Characteristics ................... 492
     11.7.7 Summary ........................................... 492
11.8 Other Sampling and ADC Considerations .................... 492
     11.8.1 Ease of ADC Implementation ........................ 492
     11.8.2 Linearity ......................................... 492
     11.8.3 Power Consumption, Circuit Complexity, Chip Area,
            and Reconfigurability ............................. 493
11.9 Concluding Remarks ....................................... 493
     References ............................................... 494

Chapter 12  Digital Filtering ................................. 497
12.1 Introduction ............................................. 497
     12.1.1 Advantages of Using Digital Filters ............... 498
     12.1.2 Disadvantages of Digital Filters .................. 499
12.2 Operation of Digital Filters ............................. 500
12.3 Simple Digital Filters ................................... 501
     12.3.1 Order of a Digital Filter ......................... 503
     12.3.2 Digital Filter Coefficients ....................... 503
12.4 Recursive and Nonrecursive Filters ....................... 505
     12.4.1 Impulse Response .................................. 505
     12.4.2 Lowpass FIR Filter ................................ 507
     12.4.3 Order ofanllR Filter .............................. 509
     12.4.4 Example of a Recursive Filter ..................... 510
     12.4.5 Coefficients of IIR Digital Filters ............... 511
12.5 The Transfer Function of a Digital Filter ................ 512
     12.5.1 The Frequency Response of Digital Filters ......... 515
12.6 Multirate Processing of Bandpass and I/Q Signals ......... 517
     12.6.1 Decimation or Downsampling with Complex Signals ... 518
     12.6.2 Interpolation or Upsampling with Complex Signals .. 518
     12.6.3 Efficient Polyphase Structures .................... 518
12.7 Hilbert Transform and Delay .............................. 526
     12.7.1 Filtering Effect of the Delay Processing .......... 528
12.8 Concluding Remarks ....................................... 534
     References ............................................... 535

Chapter 13 Digital Demodulation ............................... 537
13.1 Introduction ............................................. 537
13.2 Digital I/Q Demodulation ................................. 537
     13.2.1 Introduction ...................................... 537
     13.2.2 I/Q Demodulation .................................. 538
13.3 Direct IF Digital Demodulator ............................ 540
     13.3.1 Digital Signal Processing without the Digital
            Signal Processor .................................. 540
     13.3.2 I/Q Sampling ...................................... 541
     13.3.3 Vector Representation ............................. 548
     13.3.4 Undersampling ..................................... 548
13.4 Direct IF-Processing Elements ............................ 548
     13.4.1 A/D Converter/IF Sampler .......................... 549
     13.4.2 Digital IF Sample to I/Q Vector Conversion ........ 549
     13.4.3 I/Q Vector to Phase Conversion .................... 551
     13.4.4 Vector Magnitude: AM Detection .................... 552
     13.4.5 Summary ........................................... 552
13.5 I/Q Imbalance Compensation ............................... 553
     13.5.1 Baseband Signal Model for Digital Imbalance
            Compensation ...................................... 553
     13.5.2 Adaptive Interference Cancellation (IC)-Based
            Compensation ...................................... 555
     13.5.3 Summary ........................................... 555
     13.5.4  Verification and Validation ...................... 556
13.6 Concluding Remarks ....................................... 558
     References ............................................... 558

Chapter 14  Digital-to-Analog Converters ...................... 561
14.1 Introduction ............................................. 561
14.2 Digital-to-Analog Converter Architectures ................ 562
     14.2.1 DAC Transfer Function ............................. 562
     14.2.2 String DAC ........................................ 563
     14.2.3 Fully Decoded DACs ................................ 567
     14.2.4 Time Reference Divider ............................ 573
     14.2.5 Oversampling DACs ................................. 574
     14.2.6 Sigma-Delta DACs .................................. 575
     14.2.7 Current-to-Voltage Converters ..................... 576
14.3 Error Sources in DACs .................................... 578
     14.3.1 Static Error Sources .............................. 578
     14.3.2 Dynamic Error Sources ............................. 580
14.4 Reconstruction Filters ................................... 585
14.5 Concluding Remarks ....................................... 586
Appendix 14.A  Semiconductor Current Sources and Switches ..... 588
     14.A.1  Semiconductor Current Sources .................... 588
     14.A.2  Semiconductor Switches ........................... 589
     14.A.3  Transistors as Current Source and Switch ......... 590
References .................................................... 590

Chapter 15 Direct Digital Converters .......................... 593
15.1 Introduction ............................................. 593
15.2 Digital Receivers ........................................ 593
15.3 Digital Downconverters ................................... 598
     15.3.1 Introduction ...................................... 598
     15.3.2 Digital Downconverters ............................ 600
15.4 Polyphase Filter Banks ................................... 610
     15.4.1 Introduction ...................................... 610
     15.4.2 Polyphase Bandwidth, Spectral Spacing, and
            Output Sample Rates ............................... 611
     15.4.3 Computational Complexity .......................... 612
15.5 Concluding Remarks ....................................... 614
Appendix 15 A Direct Digital Synthesis ........................ 615
     15.A.1 Phase Truncation .................................. 615
     15.A.2 Direct Digital Synthesis .......................... 616
References .................................................... 619

Chapter 16 Spread Spectrum Techniques ......................... 621
16.1 Introduction ............................................. 621
16.2 Review of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum ................ 622
     16.2.1 Fundamentals of DSSS Operation .................... 623
     16.2.2 Modulation and Demodulation ....................... 627
     16.2.3 Coding Techniques ................................. 627
     16.2.4 Near-Far Problem .................................. 628
16.3 Review of Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum .............. 629
     16.3.1 FHSS Operation .................................... 629
     16.3.2 Modulation ........................................ 632
     16.3.3 Coding ............................................ 632
     16.3.4 FHSS Issues ....................................... 633
     16.3.5 Near-Far Problem .................................. 634
16.4 Time Hopped Spread Spectrum .............................. 634
     16.4.1 Introduction ...................................... 634
     16.4.2 Ultrawideband Systems ............................. 634
     16.4.3 Modulation Formats ................................ 636
     16.4.4 UWB Pulse Position Modulation ..................... 637
     16.4.5 Jam Resistance and Processing Gain ................ 639
     16.4.6 Multipath and Propagation ......................... 641
16.5 Advantages of Spread Spectrum ............................ 643
16.6 Concluding Remarks ....................................... 644
     References ............................................... 645

Chapter 17 Receivers for Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
Intercept ..................................................... 647
17.1 Introduction ............................................. 647
17.2 Overview of Two Receivers ................................ 648
     17.2.1 Eigenanalysis Technique ........................... 648
     17.2.2 Spectral Norm Maximization ........................ 648
17.3 Eigenanalysis Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Receiver ... 649
     17.3.1 Signal Model ...................................... 649
     17.3.2 Estimation of the Symbol Duration ................. 650
     17.3.3 Blind Estimation of the Spreading Sequence ........ 652
     17.3.4 Verification and Validation ....................... 653
     17.3.5 Summary ........................................... 656
17.4 Spectral Norm Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Receiver ... 656
     17.4.1 Symbol Synchronization ............................ 656
     17.4.2 Symbol Estimation ................................. 660
     17.4.3 Spread Sequence Estimation ........................ 661
     17.4.4 Identification of Generator Polynomial ............ 662
     17.4.5 Verification and Validation ....................... 665
     17.4.6 Summary ........................................... 670
17.5 Concluding Remarks ....................................... 670
     References ............................................... 671

Chapter 18  Receivers for Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum
Intercept ..................................................... 673
18.1 Introduction ............................................. 673
     18.1.1 Signal Detection .................................. 673
18.2 Optimal Receivers for Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum
     Interception ............................................. 674
18.3 Detection of Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum Signals
     with Filter Bank Combiners ............................... 678
     18.3.1 Introduction ...................................... 678
     18.3.2 Receiver Structure ................................ 680
     18.3.3 Radiometer Output Distribution .................... 682
     18.3.4 Channelization Techniques ......................... 683
     18.3.5 Logical OR-SUM Channelized Radiometer ............. 683
     18.3.6 MAX-SUM Channelized Radiometer .................... 684
     18.3.7 Verification and Validation ....................... 685
     18.3.8 Summary ........................................... 686
     18.3.9 Partial-Band Detection ............................ 687
18.4 Scanning Superhet for Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum
     Target Detection ......................................... 691
     18.4.1 Scanning Narrowband Receiver ...................... 691
     18.4.2 Performance of Scanning Superhet Receivers ........ 695
     18.4.3 Sequential versus Nonsequential Scanning .......... 697
18.5 Compressive Receivers for Frequency Hopped Spread
     Spectrum Interception .................................... 699
     18.5.1 Compressive Receiver .............................. 699
     18.5.2 Noise and Signal .................................. 700
     18.5.3 Low SNR Detector .................................. 703
     18.5.4 Simple Filter Detectors ........................... 706
     18.5.5 Verification and Validation ....................... 708
     18.5.6 Summary ........................................... 708
18.6 Concluding Remarks ....................................... 708
     References ............................................... 709

Chapter 19  Receivers for Time Hopped Spread Spectrum
Intercept ..................................................... 711
19.1 Introduction ............................................. 711
19.2 Detecting UWB Signals .................................... 712
     19.2.1 Modulations ....................................... 712
     19.2.2 Required SNR Measure of Effectiveness ............. 713
     19.2.3 Ratio of Distance-Measure of Effectiveness ........ 724
19.3 Concluding Remarks ....................................... 730
     References ............................................... 730

Chapter 20 Direction Finding Receivers ........................ 733
20.1 Introduction ............................................. 733
20.2 Direction of Arrival ..................................... 734
20.3 Direction Finding Techniques Overview .................... 735
     20.3.1 The Adcock Array and the Watson-Watt System ....... 735
     20.3.2 PseudoDoppler Direction Finding System Overview ... 744
     20.3.3 Phase Interferometer System Overview .............. 747
20.4 Error Sources in Direction Finding Systems ............... 749
     20.4.1 Polarization-Induced Error ........................ 749
     20.4.2 DF Errors Caused by Incoherent Wave
            Interference ...................................... 750
     20.4.3 DF Errors Caused by Coherent Wave Interference
            (Multipath) ....................................... 751
     20.4.4 Modulation ........................................ 752
     20.4.5 Physical Antenna Arrangement ...................... 752
     20.4.6 Receiver Noise .................................... 752
     20.4.7 Amplitude Matching and Phase Tracking ............. 752
     20.4.8 Antenna Element Interaction ....................... 753
     20.4.9 Antenna Height above Ground ....................... 755
20.5 Adcock/Watson-Watt (Four-Element Adcock) ................. 756
     20.5.1 Natural Direction Finding Error of the Adcock ..... 759
     20.5.2 Adcock Direction Finding Errors Caused by
            Reflections (Coherent Wave Interference) .......... 760
     20.5.3 Adcock Incoherent Interference .................... 761
     20.5.4 Adcock Polarization Error ......................... 762
     20.5.5 Adcock/Watson-Watt Errors Due to Receiver Noise ... 762
     20.5.6 Amplitude Matching with Adcock Direction Finding .. 763
     20.5.7 Phase Errors with the Adcock Direction Finding .... 763
     20.5.8 Adcock/Watson-Watt Modulation-Induced Errors ...... 764
     20.5.9 Interaction of the Adcock Antenna Elements ........ 765
     20.5.10 Geometrical Errors of the Adcock Antenna ......... 765
20.6 PseudoDoppler Systems .................................... 766
     20.6.1 Output Harmonics .................................. 768
     20.6.2 Other Receiver Implications ....................... 769
     20.6.3 Polarization-Induced Errors ....................... 769
     20.6.4 Doppler Coherent Wave Interference ................ 770
     20.6.5 Doppler Incoherent Interference ................... 770
     20.6.6 Doppler Errors due to Receiver Noise .............. 770
     20.6.7 Tracking and Matching for Doppler Direction
            Finding ........................................... 771
     20.6.8 Direction Finding Errors Caused by the Group
            Delay of the Doppler Direction Finding Receiver ... 771
     20.6.9 Doppler Direction Finding Errors Caused by
            Modulation ........................................ 772
     20.6.10 Interaction of the Doppler Antenna Elements ...... 773
     20.6.11 Geometrical Errors of the Doppler Antenna ........ 774
20.7 Phase Interferometers .................................... 775
     20.7.1 Four-Element Interferometer ....................... 779
     20.7.2 Modulation-Induced Errors ......................... 783
     20.7.3 Tracking Imbalance-Induced Errors ................. 783
     20.7.4 Polarization Induced-Errors ....................... 784
     20.7.5 Antenna Interaction-Induced Errors ................ 784
     20.7.6 Geometrical Misplacement-Induced Errors ........... 784
     20.7.7 Coherent Interference ............................. 784
     20.7.8 Incoherent Interference ........................... 785
20.8 Dual Channel Compressive Receivers for Direction
     Finding .................................................. 785
     20.8.1 Phase Processor ................................... 785
     20.8.2 Phase Measurements ................................ 787
     20.8.3 Butler Matrix ..................................... 787
     20.8.4 Receiver Implications ............................. 788
20.9 Concluding Remarks ....................................... 789
Appendix 20.A RMS and RSS in Error Analysis ................... 790
References .................................................... 791

List of Acronyms .............................................. 793
About the Author .............................................. 801
Index ......................................................... 803

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Посещение N 200 c 02.02.2016