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ОбложкаPolymer surface characterization / ed. by L.Sabbatini. - Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. - xiv, 292 p.: ill. - (De Gruyter graduate). - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.287-292. - ISBN 978-3-11-027508-7
Шифр: (И/Л7-P80) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ......................................................... x
Contributing authors ......................................... xiii

Stefania Cometa and Luigia Sabbatini
1    Introductory remarks on polymers and polymer surfaces ...... 1
1.1  Why polymers? .............................................. 1
     1.1.1  Generality .......................................... 1
     1.1.2  Synthesis ........................................... 1
     1.1.3  Classification and nomenclature ..................... 3
     1.1.4  Morphology and properties ........................... 4
1.2  Why to investigate a polymer surface? ...................... 8
     1.2.1  Nature and dynamics of polymer surfaces ............. 9
       1.2.1.1  Vibrational dynamics of macromolecules .......... 9
       1.2.1.2  Changes in thermodynamic properties on the
                surface ........................................ 10
       1.2.1.3  Rotation of functional groups on polymer
                backbones in response to different
                environmental conditions ....................... 13
       1.2.1.4  Surface interdiffusion or segregation of
                copolymers or polymer blends ................... 17
     1.2.2  Surface modification of polymers ................... 18
       1.2.2.1  Improvement of wettability ..................... 18
       1.2.2.2  Improvement of porosity or roughening .......... 19
       1.2.2.3  Improvement of adhesion ........................ 23
       1.2.2.4  Interaction of polymer with biological
                environment: Biocompatibility .................. 25
       1.2.2.5  Improvement of conductivity .................... 26
     1.2.3  Possibility of predicting polymer performances by
            surface characterization techniques ................ 28
     References ................................................ 30

Beat A. Keller
2  Investigation of polymer surfaces by time-of-flight
secondary ion mass spectrometry ................................ 39
2.1  Introduction .............................................. 39
     2.1.1  Analysis of surfaces ............................... 39
     2.1.2  The SIMS process: A detailed approach of theory
            and instruments .................................... 40
       2.1.2.1  Sputter process and SSIMS approach ............. 41
       2.1.2.2  Mass analyzer systems .......................... 43
       2.1.2.3  Ion sources and primary ions ................... 43
       2.1.2.4  Surface ionization ion guns .................... 44
       2.1.2.5  Duoplasmatron and gas ion sources .............. 45
       2.1.2.6  Liquid metal ion guns .......................... 45
       2.1.2.7  Gas cluster ion sources ........................ 46
       2.1.2.8  High-resolution ion images obtained from
                cluster LMIG sources ........................... 47
2.2  TOF-SIMS investigations of polymer materials .............. 49
     2.2.1  General remarks .................................... 49
     2.2.2  Polymers ........................................... 49
       2.2.2.1  Polydimethylsiloxane ........................... 51
       2.2.2.2  Polystyrene .................................... 52
       2.2.2.3  Polyacrylates .................................. 53
       2.2.2.4  Fluorinated polymers ........................... 53
       2.2.2.5  Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) .................... 55
       2.2.2.6  Polyethylene glycol ............................ 55
       2.2.2.7  Spectra libraries and G-SIMS approach .......... 55
       2.2.2.8  Multivariate analysis and principal component
                analysis ....................................... 57
     2.2.3  Polymer additives .................................. 58
     2.2.4  Copolymers ......................................... 59
     2.2.5  Multicomponent polymers (polymer blends) ........... 62
     2.2.6  Plasma modification and deposition ................. 63
     2.2.7  Other applications ................................. 65
     References ................................................ 66

Elvira De Giglio, Nicoletta Ditaranto, and Luigia Sabbatini
3    Polymer surface chemistry: Characterization by XPS ........ 73
3.1  Introduction .............................................. 73
3.2  Photoelectron spectroscopy: A brief history ............... 74
     3.2.1  Basic principles ................................... 74
     3.2.2  Spectroscopic and X-ray notations .................. 76
3.3  Instrumentation ........................................... 76
     3.3.1  Vacuum system ...................................... 78
     3.3.2  X-ray sources ...................................... 78
       3.3.2.1  Dual Mg/Al anode X-ray tube .................... 78
       3.3.2.2  Monochromatic source ........................... 79
       3.3.2.3  Synchrotron radiation source ................... 79
     3.3.3  Energy analyzers ................................... 79
     3.3.4  Detectors .......................................... 81
     3.3.5  Charge compensation ................................ 81
     3.3.6  Small-area XPS: imaging and mapping ................ 82
     3.3.7  Ambient-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy ........ 83
3.4  Chemical information from XPS ............................. 83
3.5  Chemical shift and its significance in the analysis of
     polymers .................................................. 87
3.6  Chemical derivatization techniques in conjunction with
     XPS ....................................................... 89
3.7  Polymers surface segregation .............................. 93
3.8  Polymers physical treatments/grafting ..................... 98
3.9  Polymers aging ........................................... 104
     References ............................................... 107

Filippo Mangolini and Antonella Rossi
4    Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared
     spectroscopy: A powerful tool for investigating polymer
     surfaces and interfaces .................................. 113
4.1  Principles of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy .... 113
4.2  Theory of attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy .. 114
     4.2.1  Propagation of IR radiation through a planar
            interface between two isotropic media ............. 114
     4.2.2  Propagation of IR radiation through stratified
            media ............................................. 118
     4.2.3  Penetration depth and effective thickness ......... 121
       4.2.3.1  Penetration depth in ATR/FTIR spectroscopic
                analysis of polymers .......................... 125
     4.2.4  Transmission FTIR vs ATR/FTIR spectroscopy ........ 126
4.3  Experimental methods in ATR/FTIR spectroscopy ............ 128
     4.3.1  Internal reflection elements ...................... 128
     4.3.2  Internal reflection attachments ................... 129
     4.3.3  Metal underlayer ATR/FTIR spectroscopy ............ 130
       4.3.3.1  Effect of metal underlayer on penetration
                depth in ATR/FTIR spectroscopic analysis of
                polymers ...................................... 133
4.4  Potentials and limitations of ATR/FTIR spectroscopy ...... 137
4.5  Applications of ATR/FTIR spectroscopy .................... 138
     4.5.1  ATR/FTIR spectroscopy in polymer science .......... 138
     4.5.2  In situ ATR/FTIR spectroscopy of tribochemical
            phenomena ......................................... 140
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 147
     References ............................................... 147

Dalia Yablon
5    Scanning probe microscopy of polymers .................... 153
5.1  Introduction ............................................. 153
5.2  Sample preparation ....................................... 155
5.3  Phase imaging ............................................ 156
     5.3.1  Background on phase imaging ....................... 156
     5.3.2  Applications of phase imaging to polymer
            materials ......................................... 156
5.4  Multifrequency imaging ................................... 159
5.5  Nanorheological mapping .................................. 160
5.6  Thermal/spectroscopic measurements ....................... 163
5.7  Environmental measurements ............................... 164
5.8  Conclusions .............................................. 165
     References ............................................... 166

Miroslav Šlouf, Tat́ana Vacková, František Lednický, and
Petr Wandrol
6    Polymer surface morphology: Characterization by electron
     microscopies ............................................. 169
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 169
6.2  Scanning electron microscopy ............................. 169
     6.2.1  SEM: Principles ................................... 169
       6.2.1.1  Microscope and image formation ................ 169
       6.2.1.2  Interaction of the electron beam with the
                specimen ...................................... 171
     6.2.2  SEM: Classical modes .............................. 173
       6.2.2.1  SE imaging .................................... 174
       6.2.2.2  BSE imaging ................................... 174
       6.2.2.3  EDX spectra ................................... 175
       6.2.2.4  STEM imaging .................................. 177
     6.2.3  SEM: Modern trends ................................ 177
       6.2.3.1  Variable-pressure SEM ......................... 177
       6.2.3.2  Variable-temperature SEM ...................... 179
       6.2.3.3  Low-voltage SEM ............................... 180
       6.2.3.4  Multidimensional SEM .......................... 180
     6.2.4  SEM: Further possibilities ........................ 181
       6.2.4.1  Spectroscopic methods ......................... 181
       6.2.4.2  Methods connected with crystal structure of
                samples ....................................... 182
       6.2.4.3  Methods using sample-specific interactions
                with electron beam ............................ 182
6.3  Transmission electron microscopy ......................... 182
6.4  Sample preparation ....................................... 183
     6.4.1  Overview of polymer materials ..................... 183
     6.4.2  Specific features of polymer materials ............ 183
       6.4.2.1  Charging and electron-beam damage ............. 183
       6.4.2.2  Skin-core effect .............................. 184
       6.4.2.3  Low contrast between components ............... 185
     6.4.3  Preparation techniques for polymer materials ...... 185
       6.4.3.1  Direct observation of polymer surface ......... 186
       6.4.3.2  Fracturing .................................... 186
       6.4.3.3  Etching ....................................... 187
       6.4.3.4  Cutting and staining .......................... 188
       6.4.3.5  Special techniques ............................ 189
6.5  Applications ............................................. 191
     6.5.1  Homopolymers ...................................... 191
     6.5.2  Copolymers ........................................ 193
     6.5.3  Polymer blends .................................... 195
     6.5.4  Polymer composites ................................ 197
     6.5.5  Special applications .............................. 198
       6.5.5.1  Low-voltage SEM in polymer science ............ 198
       6.5.5.2  Wet specimens in polymer science .............. 199
       6.5.5.3  Further applications .......................... 200
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 201
     References ............................................... 201

Fabio Palumbo and Rosa Di Mundo
7    Wettability: Significance and measurement ................ 207
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 207
7.2  CA and surface energy .................................... 210
     7.2.1  Surface energy evaluation ......................... 211
       7.2.1.1  Critical surface energy method ................ 212
       7.2.1.2  Multicomponent approaches ..................... 215
       7.2.1.3  Particular cases: High-energy surfaces and
                granular materials ............................ 215
     7.2.2  Considerations on surface energy evaluation ....... 216
7.3  CA hysteresis ............................................ 218
7.4  Measurement methods for CA ............................... 222
     7.4.1  Direct measurement by optical goniometry .......... 222
     7.4.2  Force tensiometry ................................. 225
     7.4.3  Approach comparison ............................... 226
7.5  Application of CA measurement ............................ 227
     7.5.1  From hydrophobic to water- and oil-repellent
            materials ......................................... 227
     7.5.2  Hydrophilic to super-hydrophilic materials ........ 233
     7.5.3  Hydrophobic recovery of hydrophilic surfaces ...... 235
     7.5.4  CA on porous surfaces ............................. 238
     7.5.5  Acid-base characterization of polymeric surfaces .. 239
     References ............................................... 241

Eva Bittrich and Klaus-Jochen Eichhorn
8    Advances of spectroscopic ellipsometry in the analysis
     of thin polymer films-polymer interfaces ................. 247
8.1  Introduction ............................................. 247
     8.1.1  Basics of ellipsometry ............................ 247
8.2  New ellipsometric methods, techniques, and aspects ....... 250
     8.2.1  Optical dispersion ................................ 250
     8.2.2  In situ setups .................................... 253
       8.2.2.1  Liquid cells for measurements in solution ..... 253
       8.2.2.2  Coupling ellipsometry with quartz crystal
                microbalance .................................. 254
       8.2.2.3  Total internal reflection ellipsometry ........ 256
     8.2.3  In-line monitoring ................................ 257
       8.2.3.1  Monitoring processes in a vacuum chamber ...... 258
       8.2.3.2  R2R fabrication processes ..................... 258
     8.2.4  Micropatterned films .............................. 259
       8.2.4.1  VIS imaging ellipsometry ...................... 259
       8.2.4.2  Microfocus-mapping IR ellipsometry ............ 260
8.3  Selected architectures of polymer films, blends, and
     composites ............................................... 261
     8.3.1  Polymer blends and cross-linked polymer films ..... 261
     8.3.2  Tg in thin polymer films of different
            architectures: Confinement effects ................ 262
     8.3.3  Polymer-NP composites ............................. 264
     8.3.4  Polymers in nanostructured surfaces ............... 266
8.4  Polymer layers absorbing in the VIS spectral range ....... 267
     8.4.1  Chemical modification with dye molecules .......... 267
     8.4.2  Semiconducting polymers and blends for OPV and
            OLED .............................................. 268
8.5  Swelling and adsorption processes: Proteins and stimuli-
     responsive polymers ...................................... 271
     8.5.1  Swelling of stimuli-responsive polymer layers ..... 271
     8.5.2  Protein adsorption at soft polymer surfaces ....... 274
     References ............................................... 278

Index ......................................................... 287

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