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ОбложкаDe Graef M. Structure of materials: an introduction to crystallography, diffraction and symmetry / M. De Graef, M.E.McHenry. - 2nd ed. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. - xxxii, 739 p.: ill. - Ref.: p.688-715. - Ind.: p.716-739. - ISBN 978-1-107-00587-7
Шифр: (И/Ж-D29) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
   Preface to the second edition .............................. xix
   Preface to the first edition ............................... xxi
   Acknowledgements ........................................... xxv
   Figure reproductions ..................................... xxvii
   Symbols ................................................... xxix
1  Materials and material properties ............................ 1
   1.1  Materials and structure ................................. 1
   1.2  Organization of the book ................................ 2
   1.3  About length scales ..................................... 3
   1.4  Wave-particle duality and the de Broglie relationship ... 7
   1.5  What is a material property? ............................ 9
        1.5.1  Definition of a material property ................ 9
        1.5.2  Directional dependence of properties ............ 10
        1.5.3  A first encounter with symmetry ................. 12
        1.5.4  A first encounter with magnetic symmetry ........ 15
   1.6  So, what is this book all about? ....................... 17
   1.7  Chapter summary ........................................ 19
   1.8  Historical notes ....................................... 20
   1.9  Selected problems ...................................... 21
2  The periodic table of the elements and interatomic bonds .... 23
   2.1  About atoms ............................................ 23
        2.1.1  The electronic structure of the atom ............ 23
        2.1.2  The hydrogenic model ............................ 24
   2.2  The periodic table ..................................... 26
        2.2.1  Layout of the periodic table .................... 28
        2.2.2  Trends across the table ......................... 31
   2.3  Interatomic bonds ...................................... 34
        2.3.1  Quantum chemistry ............................... 34
        2.3.2  Interactions between atoms ...................... 34
        2.3.3  The ionic bond .................................. 36
        2.3.4  The covalent bond ............................... 38
        2.3.5  The metallic bond ............................... 39
        2.3.6  The van der Waals bond .......................... 40
        2.3.7  Mixed bonding ................................... 41
        2.3.8  Electronic states and symmetry .................. 41
        2.3.9  Overview of bond types and material properties .. 42
   2.4  Chapter summary ........................................ 43
   2.5  Historical notes ....................................... 43
   2.6  Selected problems ...................................... 47
3  What is a crystal structure? ................................ 49
   3.1  Periodic arrangements of atoms ......................... 49
   3.2  The space lattice ...................................... 51
        3.2.1  Basis vectors and translation vectors ........... 51
        3.2.2  Some remarks about notation ..................... 52
        3.2.3  More about lattices ............................. 54
   3.3  The four 2-D crystal systems ........................... 56
   3.4  The seven 3-D crystal systems .......................... 57
   3.5  The five 2-D Bravais nets and fourteen 3-D Bravais
        lattices ............................................... 60
   3.6  Other ways to define a unit cell ....................... 64
   3.7  2-D and 3-D magnetic Bravais lattices .................. 66
   3.8  Chapter summary ........................................ 71
   3.9  Historical notes ....................................... 72
   3.10 Selected problems ...................................... 73
4  Crystallographic computations ............................... 75
   4.1  Directions in the crystal lattice ...................... 75
   4.2  Distances and angles in a 3-D lattice .................. 76
        4.2.1  Distance between two points ..................... 76
        4.2.2  The metric tensor ............................... 78
        4.2.3  The dot product in a crystallographic
               reference frame ................................. 80
   4.3  Worked examples ........................................ 82
        4.3.1  Computation of the length of a vector ........... 82
        4.3.2  Computation of the distance between two atoms ... 83
        4.3.3  Computation of the angle between atomic bonds ... 84
        4.3.4  Computation of the angle between lattice
               directions ...................................... 84
        4.3.5  An alternative method for the computation of
               angles .......................................... 85
        4.3.6  Further comments ................................ 85
   4.4  Chapter summary ........................................ 86
   4.5  Historical notes ....................................... 87
   4.6  Selected problems ...................................... 89
5  Lattice planes .............................................. 90
   5.1  Miller indices ......................................... 90
   5.2  Families of planes and directions ...................... 93
   5.3  Special case: the hexagonal system ..................... 94
   5.4  Crystal forms .......................................... 96
   5.5  Chapter summary ....................................... 101
   5.6  Historical notes ...................................... 101
   5.7  Selected problems ..................................... 102
6  Reciprocal space ........................................... 104
   6.1  The reciprocal basis vectors .......................... 104
   6.2  Reciprocal space and lattice planes ................... 108
   6.3  The reciprocal metric tensor .......................... 110
        6.3.1  Computation of the angle between planes ........ 112
        6.3.2  Computation of the length of the reciprocal
               lattice vector ................................. 112
   6.4  Worked examples ....................................... 114
   6.5  Chapter summary ....................................... 119
   6.6  Historical notes ...................................... 119
   6.7  Selected problems ..................................... 120
7  Additional crystallographic computations ................... 122
   7.1  The stereographic projection .......................... 122
   7.2  About zones and zone axes ............................. 125
        7.2.1  The vector cross product ....................... 126
        7.2.2  About zones and the zone equation .............. 130
        7.2.3  The reciprocal lattice and zone equation in
               the hexagonal system ........................... 131
   7.3  Relations between direct space and reciprocal space ... 133
   7.4  Coordinate transformations ............................ 135
        7.4.1  Transformation rules ........................... 135
        7.4.2  Example of a coordinate transformation ......... 138
        7.4.3  Converting vector components into Cartesian
               coordinates .................................... 140
   7.5  Examples of stereographic projections ................. 143
        7.5.1  Stereographic projection of a cubic crystal .... 143
        7.5.2  Stereographic projection of a monoclinic
               crystal ........................................ 146
   7.6  Chapter summary ....................................... 149
   7.7  Historical notes ...................................... 150
   7.8  Selected problems ..................................... 151
8  Symmetry in crystallography ................................ 152
   8.1  Symmetry of an arbitrary object ....................... 152
   8.2  Symmetry operations ................................... 158
        8.2.1  Basic isometric transformations ................ 159
        8.2.2  Compatibility of rotational symmetries with
               crystalline translational periodicity .......... 160
        8.2.3  Operations of the first kind: pure rotations ... 162
        8.2.4  Operations of the first kind: pure
               translations ................................... 164
        8.2.5  Operations of the second kind: pure
               reflections .................................... 166
        8.2.6  Operations of the second kind: inversions ...... 167
        8.2.7  Symmetry operations that do not pass through
               the origin ..................................... 168
   8.3  Magnetic symmetry operations .......................... 169
        8.3.1  Time-reversal symmetry and axial vectors ....... 169
        8.3.2  Time-reversing symmetry operations ............. 173
   8.4  Combinations of symmetry operations ................... 175
        8.4.1  Combination of rotations with the inversion
               center ......................................... 175
        8.4.2  Combination of rotations and mirrors ........... 177
        8.4.3  Combination of rotations and translations ...... 178
        8.4.4  Combination of mirrors and translations ........ 181
        8.4.5  Relationships and differences between
               operations of the first and second kind ........ 183
        8.4.6  Combinations of magnetic and regular
               symmetry operators ............................. 184
   8.5  Point symmetry ........................................ 186
   8.6  Chapter summary ....................................... 188
   8.7  Historical notes ...................................... 190
   8.8  Selected problems ..................................... 191
9  Point groups ............................................... 193
   9.1  What is a group? ...................................... 193
        9.1.1  A simple example ............................... 193
        9.1.2  Group axioms ................................... 194
        9.1.3  Principal properties of groups ................. 196
   9.2  3-D crystallographic point symmetries ................. 197
        9.2.1  Step I: the proper rotations ................... 198
        9.2.2  Step II: combining proper rotations with
               two-fold rotations ............................. 199
        9.2.3  Step IIIa: combining proper rotations with
               inversion symmetry ............................. 201
        9.2.4  Step IIIb: combining proper rotations with
               perpendicular reflection elements .............. 203
        9.2.5  Step IV: combining proper rotations with
               coinciding reflection elements ................. 204
        9.2.6  Step Va: combining inversion rotations with
               coinciding reflection elements ................. 204
        9.2.7  Step Vb: combining proper rotations with
               coinciding and perpendicular reflection
               elements ....................................... 205
        9.2.8  Step VI: combining proper rotations ............ 206
        9.2.9  Step VII: adding reflection elements to
               Step VI ........................................ 207
        9.2.10 General remarks ................................ 208
   9.3  2-D crystallographic point symmetries ................. 220
   9.4  Magnetic point groups ................................. 221
        9.4.1  Derivation ..................................... 221
        9.4.2  Visualization of the magnetic point groups ..... 223
        9.4.3  Color, charge, and time reversal ............... 225
   9.5  Chapter summary ....................................... 227
   9.6  Historical notes ...................................... 228
   9.7  Selected problems ..................................... 228
10 Plane groups and space groups .............................. 230
   10.1 Combining translations with point group symmetry ...... 230
   10.2 Plane groups .......................................... 231
        10.2.1 A simple example ............................... 231
        10.2.2 A more complex example ......................... 233
        10.2.3 The 17 plane groups ............................ 235
   10.3 Space groups .......................................... 236
        10.3.1 A simple example ............................... 236
        10.3.2 A second simple example ........................ 238
        10.3.3 A more complex example ......................... 239
        10.3.4 The symmorphic space groups .................... 240
        10.3.5 The non-symmorphic space groups ................ 242
        10.3.6 *Space group generators ........................ 243
        10.3.7 General remarks ................................ 247
   10.4 The International Tables for Crystallography .......... 248
   10.5 Magnetic space groups ................................. 253
   10.6 Chapter summary ....................................... 255
   10.7 Historical notes ...................................... 256
   10.8 Selected problems ..................................... 257
11 X-ray diffraction: geometry ................................ 259
   11.1 Properties and generation of X-rays ................... 259
        11.1.1 How do we generate X-rays? ..................... 261
        11.1.2 Wavelength selection ........................... 265
   11.2 X-rays and crystal lattices ........................... 268
        11.2.1 Scattering of X-rays by lattice planes ......... 272
        11.2.2 Bragg's law in reciprocal space ................ 276
   11.3 Basic experimental X-ray diffraction techniques ....... 280
        11.3.1 The X-ray powder diffractometer ................ 281
   11.4 Chapter summary ....................................... 289
   11.5 Historical notes ...................................... 289
   11.6 Selected problems ..................................... 290
12 X-ray diffraction: intensities ............................. 291
   12.1 Scattering by electrons, atoms, and unit cells ........ 291
        12.1.1 Scattering by a single electron ................ 291
        12.1.2 Scattering by a single atom .................... 293
        12.1.3 Scattering by a single unit cell ............... 298
   12.2 The structure factor .................................. 300
        12.2.1 Lattice centering and the structure factor ..... 300
        12.2.2 Symmetry and the structure factor .............. 304
        12.2.3 Systematic absences and the International
               Tables for Crystallography ..................... 307
        12.2.4 Examples of structure factor calculations ...... 307
   12.3 Intensity calculations for diffracted and measured
        intensities ........................................... 309
        12.3.1 Description of the correction factors .......... 310
        12.3.2 Expressions for the total measured intensity ... 315
   12.4 Chapter summary ....................................... 317
   12.5 Historical notes ...................................... 317
   12.6 Selected problems ..................................... 318
13 Other diffraction techniques ............................... 320
   13.1 Introductory remarks .................................. 320
   13.2 Neutron diffraction ................................... 321
        13.2.1 Neutrons: generation and properties ............ 323
        13.2.2 Neutrons: wavelength selection ................. 325
        13.2.3 Neutrons: atomic scattering factors ............ 326
        13.2.4 Neutrons: scattering geometry and diffracted
               intensities .................................... 330
        13.2.5 Neutrons: example powder pattern ............... 334
   13.3 Electron diffraction .................................. 335
        13.3.1 The electron as a particle and a wave .......... 335
        13.3.2 The geometry of electron diffraction ........... 337
        13.3.3 The transmission electron microscope ........... 338
        13.3.4 Basic observation modes in the ТЕМ ............. 340
        13.3.5 Convergent beam electron diffraction ........... 343
   13.4 Synchrotron X-ray sources for scattering
        experiments ........................................... 347
        13.4.1 Synchrotron accelerators ....................... 348
        13.4.2 Synchrotron radiation: experimental examples ... 350
   13.5 Chapter summary ....................................... 352
   13.6 Historical notes ...................................... 352
   13.7 Selected problems ..................................... 354
14 About crystal structures and diffraction patterns .......... 356
   14.1 Crystal structure descriptions ........................ 356
        14.1.1 Space group description ........................ 356
        14.1.2 Graphical representation methods ............... 357
   14.2 Crystal structures  powder diffraction patterns ....... 360
        14.2.1 The Ni powder pattern, starting from the
               known structure ................................ 361
        14.2.2 The NaCl powder pattern, starting from the
               known structure ................................ 365
        14.2.3 The Ni structure, starting from the
               experimental powder diffraction pattern ........ 369
        14.2.4 The NaCl structure, starting from the
               experimental powder diffraction pattern ........ 372
        14.2.5 General comments about crystal structure
               determination .................................. 375
   14.3 Chapter summary ....................................... 380
   14.4 Historical notes ...................................... 380
   14.5 Selected problems ..................................... 382
15 Non-crystallographic point groups .......................... 383
   15.1 Example of a non-crystallographic point group
        symmetry .............................................. 383
   15.2 Icosahedral and related five-fold symmetry groups ..... 384
        15.2.1 The icosahedral point groups ................... 384
        15.2.2 Fullerene molecular structures ................. 385
        15.2.3 Icosahedral group representations .............. 387
        15.2.4 Other non-crystallographic point groups with
               five-fold symmetries ........................... 390
        15.2.5 Descents in symmetry: decagonal and
               pentagonal groups .............................. 393
   15.3 Non-crystallographic point groups with octagonal
        symmetry .............................................. 395
   15.4 Chapter summary ....................................... 400
   15.5 Historical notes ...................................... 400
   15.6 Selected problems ..................................... 402
16 Periodic and aperiodic tilings ............................. 403
   16.1 2-D plane tilings ..................................... 403
        16.1.1 2-D regular tilings ............................ 404
        16.1.2 2-D Archimedean tilings ........................ 405
        16.1.3 fc-uniform regular tilings ..................... 406
        16.1.4 Dual tilings - the Laves tilings ............... 407
        16.1.5 Tilings without regular vertices ............... 408
   16.2 Color tilings ......................................... 408
   16.3 Quasiperiodic tilings ................................. 410
   16.4 Regular polyhedra and и-D regular polytopes ........... 411
   16.5 Crystals with stacking of 36 tilings .................. 415
        16.5.1 Simple close-packed structures: ABC stacking ... 415
        16.5.2 Interstitial sites in close-packed structures .. 416
        16.5.3 Representation of close-packed structures ...... 417
        16.5.4 Polytypism and properties of SiC
               semiconductors ................................. 419
        16.5.5 36 close-packed tilings of polyhedral faces .... 420
   16.6 Chapter summary ....................................... 421
   16.7 Historical notes ...................................... 422
   16.8 Selected problems ..................................... 424
17 Metallic structures I: simple, derivative, and
   superlattice structures .................................... 425
   17.1 Introductory comments ................................. 425
   17.2 Classification of structures .......................... 426
        17.2.1 Strukturbericht symbols ........................ 426
        17.2.2 Pearson symbols ................................ 427
        17.2.3 Structure descriptions in this book ............ 427
   17.3 Parent structures ..................................... 428
        17.3.1 Geometrical calculations for cubic structures .. 430
   17.4 Atomic sizes, bonding, and alloy structure ............ 431
        17.4.1 Hume-Rothery rules ............................. 432
        17.4.2 Bonding in close-packed rare gas and metallic
               structures ..................................... 433
        17.4.3 Phase diagrams ................................. 437
   17.5 Superlattices and sublattices: mathematical
        definition ............................................ 438
   17.6 Derivative structures and superlattice examples ....... 439
        17.6.1 /сс-derived structures and superlattices ....... 439
        17.6.2 &cc-derived superlattices ...................... 444
        17.6.3 Diamond cubic derived superlattices ............ 446
        17.6.4 Hexagonal close-packed derived superlattices ... 448
   17.7 Elements with alternative stacking sequences or
        lower symmetry ........................................ 450
        17.7.1 Elements with alternative stacking sequences ... 450
        17.7.2 Elements with lower-symmetry structures ........ 451
   17.8 *Natural and artificial superlattices ................. 455
        17.8.1 Superlattice structures based on the L12 cell .. 455
        17.8.2 Artificial superlattices ....................... 457
        17.8.3 X-ray scattering from long-period multi-
               layered systems ................................ 459
        17.8.4 Incommensurate superlattices ................... 459
   17.9 Interstitial alloys ................................... 461
   17.10 Chapter summary ...................................... 462
   17.11 Historical notes ..................................... 463
   17.12 Selected problems .................................... 464
18 Metallic structures II: complex geometrically determined
   structures ................................................. 466
   18.1 Electronic states in metals ........................... 466
   18.2 Topological close packing ............................. 468
        18.2.1 The Kasper polyhedra ........................... 469
        18.2.2 Connectivity of Kasper polyhedra ............... 471
        18.2.3 Metallic radii ................................. 471
   18.3 Frank-Kasper alloy phases ............................. 472
        18.3.1 A15 phases and related structures .............. 472
        18.3.2 The Laves phases and related structures ........ 479
        18.3.3 The sigma phase ................................ 486
        18.3.4 The At-phase and the M-, P-, and tf-phases ..... 488
   18.4 Quasicrystal approximants ............................. 490
        18.4.1 Mg32(Al,Zn)49 and α-Al-Mn-Si crystal
               structures ..................................... 490
        18.4.2 Mg32(Al,Zn)49 and α-Al-Mn-Si shell models ...... 491
   18.5 Chapter summary ....................................... 494
   18.6 Historical notes ...................................... 495
   18.7 Selected problems ..................................... 496
19 Metallic structures III: quasicrystals ..................... 497
   19.1 Introductory remarks .................................. 497
   19.2 The golden mean and pentagonal symmetry ............... 498
   19.3 1-D quasicrystals ..................................... 501
        19.3.1 The Fibonacci sequence and lattice derived by
               recursion ...................................... 501
        19.3.2 Lattice positions in the Fibonacci lattice ..... 503
        19.3.3 Construction of the Fibonacci lattice by the
               projection method .............................. 504
        19.3.4 The Fourier transform of the Fibonacci
               lattice ........................................ 505
   19.4 2-D quasicrystals ..................................... 507
        19.4.1 2-D quasicrystals: Penrose tilings ............. 507
        19.4.2 The Penrose tiling derived by projection ....... 512
        19.4.3 2-D quasicrystals: other polygonal
               quasicrystals .................................. 514
   19.5 3-D quasicrystals ..................................... 516
        19.5.1 3-D Penrose tilings ............................ 517
        19.5.2 Indexing icosahedral quasicrystal diffraction
               patterns ....................................... 519
        19.5.3 Icosahedral quasicrystal diffraction
               patterns and quasilattice constants ............ 521
        19.5.4 3-D Penrose tiles: stacking, decoration, and
               quasilattice constants ......................... 522
        19.5.5 3-D Penrose tiles: projection method ........... 524
   19.6 Multiple twinning and icosahedral glass models ........ 525
   19.7 Microscopic observations of quasicrystal
        morphologies .......................................... 526
   19.8 Chapter summary ....................................... 528
   19.9 Historical notes ...................................... 528
   19.10 Selected problems .................................... 530
20 Metallic structures IV: amorphous metals ................... 531
   20.1 Introductory comments ................................. 531
   20.2 Order in amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys ......... 532
   20.3 Atomic positions in amorphous alloys .................. 535
   20.4 Atomic volume, packing, and bonding in amorphous
        solids ................................................ 536
        20.4.1 DRPHS model .................................... 537
        20.4.2 Binding in clusters: crystalline and
               icosahedral short-range order .................. 539
        20.4.3 Icosahedral short-range order models ........... 539
   20.5 Amorphous metal synthesis ............................. 540
   20.6 Thermodynamic and kinetic criteria for glass
        formation ............................................. 542
   20.7 Examples of amorphous metal alloy systems ............. 543
        20.7.1 Metal-metalloid systems ........................ 544
        20.7.2 Rare earth-transition metal systems ............ 545
        20.7.3 Early transition metal-late transition metal
               systems ........................................ 546
        20.7.4 Multi-component nanocomposite systems .......... 546
        20.7.5 Multi-component bulk amorphous systems ......... 548
   20.8 X-ray scattering in amorphous materials ............... 550
   20.9 Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) ...... 554
   20.10 Mössbauer spectroscopy ............................... 557
   20.11 Chapter summary ...................................... 558
   20.12 Historical notes ..................................... 558
   20.13 Selected problems .................................... 560
21 Ceramic structures I: basic structure prototypes ........... 561
   21.1 Introductory remarks .................................. 561
   21.2 Ionic radii ........................................... 562
   21.3 Bonding energetics in ionic structures ................ 565
   21.4 Rules for packing and connectivity in ionic crystals .. 566
        21.4.1 Pauling's rules for ionic structures ........... 566
        21.4.2 Radius ratio rules for ionic compounds ......... 567
   21.5 Oxides of iron ........................................ 570
   21.6 Halide salt structures: CsCl, NaCl, and CaF2 .......... 571
   21.7 Close-packed sulfide and oxide structures: ZnS and
        Al2O3 ................................................. 574
   21.8 Perovskite and spinel structures ...................... 577
        21.8.1 Perovskites: ABO3 .............................. 577
        21.8.2 Spinels: AB2O4 ................................. 580
   21.9 Non-cubic close-packed structures: NiAs, CdI2, and
        ТiO2 .................................................. 584
   21.10 Layered structures ................................... 585
        21.10.1 Magnetoplumbite phases ........................ 586
        21.10.2 Aurivillius phases ............................ 586
        21.10.3 Ruddlesden-Popper phases ...................... 588
        21.10.4 Tungsten bronzes .............................. 589
        21.10.5 Titanium carbosulfide ......................... 591
   21.11 Additional remarks ................................... 591
   21.12 Point defects in ceramics ............................ 592
   21.13 Chapter summary ...................................... 594
   21.14 Historical notes ..................................... 594
   21.15 Selected problems .................................... 596
22 Ceramic structures II: high-temperature superconductors .... 597
   22.1 Introductory remarks about superconductivity .......... 597
   22.2 High-temperature superconductors: nomenclature ........ 598
   22.3 Perovskite-based high-temperature superconductors ..... 599
        22.3.1 Single-layer perovskite high-temperature
               superconductors ................................ 599
        22.3.2 Triple-layer perovskite-based high-
               temperature superconductors .................... 601
   22.4 BSCCO, TBCCO, HBCCO, and ACBCCO HTSC layered
        structures ............................................ 606
        22.4.1 The BSCCO double-layer high-temperature
               superconductors ................................ 606
        22.4.2 The TBCCO double-layer high-temperature
               superconductors ................................ 608
        22.4.3 The TBCCO single-layer high-temperature
               superconductors ................................ 611
        22.4.4 The HBCCO high-temperature superconductors ..... 613
        22.4.5 The ACBCCO high-temperature superconductors .... 615
        22.4.6 Rutheno-cuprate high-temperature
               superconductors ................................ 615
        22.4.7 Infinite-layer high-temperature
               superconductors ................................ 616
   22.5 Chapter summary ....................................... 616
   22.6 Historical notes ...................................... 617
   22.7 Selected problems ..................................... 619
23 Ceramic structures III: terrestrial and extraterrestrial
   minerals ................................................... 620
   23.1 Classification of minerals ............................ 620
   23.2 Silicates overview .................................... 622
        23.2.1 Orthosilicates (nesosilicates) ................. 624
        23.2.2 Pyrosilicates (sorosilicates) .................. 629
        23.2.3 Chains of tetrahedra, metasilicates
               (inosilicates) ................................. 630
        23.2.4 Double chains of tetrahedra .................... 633
        23.2.5 Sheets of tetrahedra, phyllosilicates .......... 634
        23.2.6 Networks of tetrahedra, tectosilicates ......... 635
        23.2.7 Random networks of tetrahedra: silicate
               glasses ........................................ 639
        23.2.8 Mesoporous silicates ........................... 641
        23.2.9 Sol-gel synthesis of silicate nanostructures ... 642
   23.3 Magnetic minerals on Mars and their biogenic origins .. 643
        23.3.1 Hydroxides ..................................... 646
        23.3.2 Sulfates ....................................... 649
   23.4 Chapter summary ....................................... 650
   23.5 Historical notes ...................................... 651
   23.6 Selected problems ..................................... 652
24 Molecular solids and biological materials .................. 653
   24.1 Introductory remarks .................................. 653
   24.2 Simple molecular crystals: ice, dry ice, benzene,
        the clathrates, and self-assembled structures ......... 654
        24.2.1 Solid H2O: ice ................................. 654
        24.2.2 Solid CO2: dry ice ............................. 656
        24.2.3 Hydrocarbon crystals ........................... 657
        24.2.4 Clathrates ..................................... 658
        24.2.5 Amphiphiles and micelles ....................... 659
   24.3 Polymers .............................................. 660
        24.3.1 Polymer classification ......................... 661
        24.3.2 Polymerization reactions and products .......... 662
        24.3.3 Polymer chains: spatial configurations ......... 664
        24.3.4 Copolymers and self-assembly ................... 666
        24.3.5 Conducting and superconducting polymers ........ 668
        24.3.6 Polymeric derivatives of fullerenes ............ 670
   24.4 Biological macromolecules ............................. 671
        24.4.1 DNA and RNA .................................... 671
        24.4.2 Virus structures ............................... 674
   24.5 Fullerene-based molecular solids ...................... 677
        24.5.1 Fullerites ..................................... 679
        24.5.2 Fullerides ..................................... 681
        24.5.3 Carbon nanotubes ............................... 681
   24.6 Chapter summary ....................................... 685
   24.7 Historical notes ...................................... 685
   24.8 Selected problems ..................................... 687

   References ................................................. 688
   Index ...................................................... 716

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Посещение N 295 c 01.03.2016