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ОбложкаReed R.C. The superalloys: fundamentals and applications. - Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006 (2008). - xiv, 372 p.: ill. - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.363-372. - ISBN 978-0-521-07011-9
Шифр: (И/К2-R3) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
   Foreword by Dr Mike Hicks ................................... xi
   Preface ................................................... xiii
   Acknowledgements ............................................ xv

1  Introduction ................................................. 1
   1.1  Background: materials for high-temperature
        applications ............................................ 1
        1.1.1  Characteristics of high-temperature materials .... 1
        1.1.2  The superalloys as high-temperature materials .... 2
        1.1.3  Instances of superalloy component failures ....... 5
   1.2  The requirement: the gas turbine engine ................. 8
   1.3  The selection of materials for high-temperature
        applications ........................................... 14
        1.3.1  Larson-Miller approach for the ranking of
               creep performance ............................... 14
        1.3.2  Historical development of the superalloys ....... 18
        1.3.3  Nickel as a high-temperature material:
               justification ................................... 25
   Mi Summary .................................................. 28
   Questions ................................................... 29
   References .................................................. 31
2  The physical metallurgy of nickel and its alloys ............ 33
   2.1  Composition-microstructure relationships in nickel
        alloys ................................................. 34
        2.1.1  The FCC phase ................................... 35
        2.1.2  The gamma prime phase ........................... 40
        2.1.3  Other phases in the superalloys ................. 49
   2.2  Defectfe m nickel and its alloys ....................... 55
        2.2.1  Defects in the gamma (FCC) phase ................ 55
        2.2.2  Defects in the gamma prime phase ................ 65
   2.3  Strengthening effects in nickel alloys ................. 73
        2.3.1  Strengthening by particles of the gamma prime
               phase ........................................... 74
        2.3.2  Temperature dependence of strengthening in the
               superalloys ..................................... 81
        2.3.2  The anomalous yielding effect in gamma prime
               alloys .......................................... 86
   2.4  The creep behaviour of nickel alloys ................... 90
        2.4.1  The creep behaviour of nickel ................... 91
        2.4.2  Creep strengthening in nickel alloys by
               solid-solution strengthening .................... 95
        2.4.3  Creep strengthening in nickel alloys by
               precipitation hardening ......................... 99
   Appendix. The anisotropic elasticity displayed by nickel ... 103
   Questions .................................................. 108
   References ................................................. 114
3  Single-crystal superalloys for blade applications .......... 121
   3.1  Processing of turbine blading by solidification
        processing ............................................ 122
        3.1.1  The practice of investment casting:
               directional solidification ..................... 122
        3.1.2  Analysis of heat transfer during directional
               solidification ................................. 130
        3.1.3  Formation of defects during directional
               solidification ................................. 139
        3.1.4  The influence of processing conditions on
               the scale of the dendritic structure ........... 143
   3.2  Optimisation of the chemistry of single-crystal
        superalloys ........................................... 147
        3.2.1  Guideline 1 .................................... 152
        3.2.2  Guideline 2 .................................... 154
        3.2.3  Guideline 3 .................................... 157
        3.2.4  Guideline 4 .................................... 162
   3.3  Mechanical behaviour of the single-crystal
        superalloys ........................................... 170
        3.3.1  Performance in creep ........................... 171
        3.3.2  Performance in fatigue ......................... 187
   3.4  Turbine blading: design of its size and shape ......... 194
        3.4.1  Estimation of the length of the turbine
               aerofoils ...................................... 196
        3.4.2  Choice of mean radius for turbine blading ...... 198
        3.4.3  Estimation of exit angle from blade cross-
               section ........................................ 200
   Appendix. Growth of an isolated dendrite, using
        hemispherical needle approximation .................... 202
   Questions .................................................. 203
   References ................................................. 211
4  Superalloys for turbine disc applications .................. 217
   4.1  Processing of the turbine disc alloys ................. 217
        4.1.1  Processing by the cast and wrought route ....... 222
        4.1.2  Processing by the powder route ................. 231
   4.2  Composition, microstructure and properties of
        turbine disc alloys ................................... 236
        4.2.1  Guideline 1 .................................... 238
        4.2.2  Guideline 2 .................................... 246
        4.2.3  Guideline 3 .................................... 252
   4.3  Service life estimation for turbine disc
        applications .......................................... 259
        4.3.1  Stress analysis of a turbine disc of
               simplified geometry ............................ 259
        4.3.2  Methods for lifing a turbine disc .............. 260
        4.3.3  Non-destructive evaluation of turbine discs .... 271
   Questions .................................................. 274
   References ................................................. 278
5  Environmental degradation: the role of coatings ............ 283
   5.1  Processes for the deposition of coatings on the
        superalloys ........................................... 285
        5.1.1  Electron beam physical vapour deposition ....... 285
        5.1.2  Plasma spraying ................................ 288
        5.1.3  Pack cementation and chemical vapour
               deposition methods ............................. 293
   5.2  Thermal barrier coatings .............................. 297
        5.2.1  Quantification of the insulating effect ........ 297
        5.2.2  The choice of ceramic material for a TBC ....... 298
        5.2.3  Factors controlling the thermal conductivity
               of a ceramic coating ........................... 301
   5.3  Overlay coatings ...................................... 305
        5.3.1  Oxidation behaviour of Ni-based overlay
               coatings ....................................... 307
        5.3.2  Mechanical properties of superalloys coated
               with overlay coatings .......................... 312
   5.4  Diffusion coatings .................................... 317
   5.5  Failure mechanisms in thermal barrier coating
        systems ............................................... 324
        5.5.1  Introduction ................................... 324
        5.5.2  Observations of failure mechanisms in TBC
               systems ........................................ 325
        5.5.3  Lifetime estimation models ..................... 331
        5.5.4  The role of imperfections near the TGO ......... 333
   5.6  Summary ............................................... 335
   Questions .................................................. 337
   References ................................................. 340
6  Summary and future trends .................................. 351
   6.1  Trends in superalloys for turbine blade applications .. 353

   6.2  Trends in superalloys and processes for turbine
        disc applications ..................................... 357
   6.3  Concluding remarks .................................... 361
   References ................................................. 362

   Index ...................................................... 363

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