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ОбложкаHaasen P. Physical metallurgy / transl. by J.Mordike. - 3rd enl. and rev. ed. - Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. - xv, 420 p.: ill. - Ref.: p.403-414. - Ind.: p.415-420. - ISBN 978-0-521-55092-5
Шифр: (И/К3-Н11) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
 
   Preface to the English editions ............................. xi
   Preface ................................................... xiii
   Meaning of frequently used symbols and conversion of 
   units ...................................................... xiv
1  Introduction ................................................. 1
2  Experimental methods for the physical examination of metals .. 3
   2.1  Microscopy of surfaces .................................. 3
   2.2  Transmission electron microscopy (ТЕМ) .................. 7
   2.3  Diffuse X-ray scattering ............................... 17
   2.4  Field ion microscopy (FIM) and scanning tunnel 
        microscopy ............................................. 21
   2.5  Thermal analysis ....................................... 26
   2.6  Mechanical testing methods ............................. 28
   2.7  Investigation of anelasticity .......................... 32
   2.8  Mössbauer effect ....................................... 34
   2.9  The stereographic projection ........................... 37
3  Microstructure and phase, grain and phase boundaries ........ 41
   3.1  Definitions ............................................ 41
   3.2  Structure of grain boundaries .......................... 44
   3.3  Energy of grain boundaries and its measurement ......... 50
   3.4  Interphase interfaces .................................. 54
4  Solidification .............................................. 57
   4.1  Homogeneous nucleation ................................. 57
   4.2  Heterogeneous nucleation ............................... 59
   4.3  Crystal growth ......................................... 60
   4.4  Growth of single crystals and the origin of
        dislocations ........................................... 62
   4.5  Distribution of dissolved solute atoms on
        solidification ......................................... 64
   4.6  Eutectic solidification ................................ 75
   4.7  Metallic glasses ....................................... 79
5  Thermodynamics of alloys .................................... 83
   5.1  Equilibrium conditions ................................. 83
   5.2  Statistical thermodynamics of ideal and regular 
        binary solutions ....................................... 86
   5.3  Measurements of the energy of mixing and the activity .. 90
   5.4  More advanced models of solutions ...................... 93
   5.5  Derivation of binary phase diagrams from the model of
        a solution ............................................. 94
   5.6  Free energies and binary phase diagrams ................ 99
   5.7  Ternary phase diagrams ................................ 105
6  Structure and theory of metallic phases .................... 110
   6.1  Two important binary systems .......................... 110
   6.2  Structures of pure metals and elastic instabilities ... 118
   6.3  Hume-Rothery phases and electrons in alloys ........... 128
   6.4  Alloy phases determined by atomic size ................ 140
   6.5  Normal valency compounds .............................. 147
7  Ordered arrangements of atoms .............................. 148
   7.1  Superlattices ......................................... 148
   7.2  Incomplete order, degrees of order .................... 153
   7.3  Ordered domains and their boundaries .................. 160
   7.4  Kinetics of ordering .................................. 165
8  Diffusion .................................................. 171
   8.1  Isothermal diffusion with a constant diffusion 
        coefficient ........................................... 171
   8.2  Atomic mechanisms of diffusion ........................ 173
   8.3  Diffusion with a concentration-dependent D ............ 182
   8.4  Diffusion in interfaces and along dislocations ........ 192
   8.5  Electro- and thermomigration .......................... 197
   8.6  Oxidation of metals ................................... 200
   8.7  Permeation of hydrogen: Diffusion with saturable
        traps ................................................. 202
9  Precipitation .............................................. 209
   9.1  Nucleation of precipitates ............................ 210
   9.2  Rate equations for the growth of precipitates ......... 221
   9.3  Ostwald ripening ...................................... 225
   9.4  Spinodal decomposition ................................ 227
   9.5  Discontinuous precipitation and eutectoid
        decomposition ......................................... 233
   9.6  TTT diagrams .......................................... 238
10 Point defects, especially those created by quenching and

   irradiation ................................................ 240
   10.1 Measurement of the equilibrium vacancy concentration .. 240
   10.2 Quenching and annealing of excess vacancies ........... 244
   10.3 Effects of irradiation with high-energy particles ..... 250
   10.4 Recovery stages after irradiation ..................... 253
   10.5 Radiation damage to reactor materials ................. 255
11 Line defects - Dislocations ................................ 258
   11.1 Topological properties of dislocations ................ 258
   11.2 Elasticity theory of dislocations ..................... 265
   11.3 Dislocations in crystals .............................. 274
   11.4 Dislocation dynamics .................................. 282
12 Plastic deformation, work hardening and fracture ........... 285
   12.1 Crystallography of plastic shear ...................... 285
   12.2 Slip and dislocation movement ......................... 289
   12.3 Flow stress and work hardening ........................ 292
   12.4 Dynamic recovery - cross-slip and climb ............... 297
   12.5 Deformation of polycrystals, deformation texture ...... 303
   12.6 Grain boundary sliding and superplasticity ............ 311
   12.7 Cyclic deformation and fatigue ........................ 315
   12.8 Fracture at small tensile strains - 
        'brittle fracture' .................................... 321
13 Martensitic transformations ................................ 327
   13.1 Mechanical twinning ................................... 327
   13.2 Characterization of martensitic transformations ....... 330
   13.3 Landau theory of shape-memory alloys .................. 334
   13.4 Crystallography of martensitic transformations ........ 337
   13.5 The martensitic phase boundary ........................ 343
   13.6 Nucleation of martensite .............................. 345
   13.7 Hardening of steel .................................... 347
   13.8 The displacive ai-transformation ...................... 350
14 Alloy hardening ............................................ 353
   14.1 Solid solution hardening .............................. 353
   14.2 Dislocation locking and unlocking ..................... 365
   14.3 Precipitation hardening ............................... 370
   14.4 Dispersion hardening and fibre-reinforcement .......... 375
   14.5 Order hardening and plasticity of intermetallics ...... 379
15 Recrystallization .......................................... 381
   15.1 Definitions ........................................... 381
   15.2 Primary recrystallization ............................. 382
   15.3 Grain growth .......................................... 387
   15.4 Recrystallization textures ............................ 398
   15.5 Secondary recrystallization (grain growth) ............ 401

   References ................................................. 403
   Index ...................................................... 415

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