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ОбложкаLankford B.A. Resource efficiency complexity and the commons: the paracommons and paradoxes of natural resource losses, wastes and wastages. - London; New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis: Earthscan, 2013. - x, 232 p.: ill., tab. - Bibliogr.: p.211-224. - Auth. ind.: p.225-227. - Sub. ind.: p.228-232. - ISBN 978-0-415-82846-8
Шифр: (И/У04-L25) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
List of figures ................................................ ix
List of tables ................................................. xi
List of boxes ................................................. xii
Preface ...................................................... xiii
Acknowledgements ............................................... xv
Acronyms and abbreviations .................................... xvi

1  A preliminary explanation of the paracommons ................. 1
   1.1  The paracommons - step by step .......................... 2
   1.2  A brief explanation of the word 'paracommons' ........... 5
   1.3  The paracommons and the discarded apple core ............ 5
   1.4  The paracommons, households and hospital wards .......... 6
   1.5  The paracommons - seven clarifications .................. 9
        1.5.1  The paracommons and the commons .................. 9
        1.5.2  Paracommons complexity and commons complexity .... 9
        1.5.3  The paracommons, energy efficiency and the
               Jevons Paradox .................................. 10
        1.5.4  The paracommons, carbon leakage and the 'green
               paradox' ........................................ 10
        1.5.5  The paracommons, waste recycling and industrial
               ecology ......................................... 11
        1.5.6  The paracommons and wastewater recycling ........ 11
        1.5.7  The paracommons and natural resource wastes-
               industrialising ecology ......................... 11
   1.6  Terms and definitions .................................. 12
2  Main introduction and the scope of the book ................. 17
   2.1  A rising interest in scarcity - and efficiency? ........ 22
   2.2  Complexity and common pool resources ................... 25
   2.3  Efficiency, savings, gains, paragains and uncertainty .. 26
   2.4  On the word 'paracommons' .............................. 30
   2.5  On the word 'paragain' ................................. 32
   2.6  On 'liminal' and 'liminality' .......................... 34
   2.7  Purpose, framework and structure of the book ........... 34
   2.8  Scope and limitations of the book ...................... 36
   2.9  Chapter review ......................................... 39
3  On resource efficiency: Multiple views ...................... 42
   3.1  Efficiency in irrigation: challenging systems .......... 42
        3.1.1  Complex water distribution and efficiency of
               irrigation systems .............................. 42
        3.1.2  A synopsis of the efficiency debate in
               irrigation ...................................... 47
        3.1.3  Simplifying and omitting efficiency ............. 50
        3.1.4  The evolution of irrigation efficiency .......... 53
        3.1.5  Efficiency as a design step ..................... 55
        3.1.6  Efficiency as design ............................ 55
   3.2  Efficiency, sufficiency, productivity and
        sustainability ......................................... 56
        3.2.1  Efficiency, eco-efficiency and productivity ..... 56
        3.2.2  Efficiency and sufficiency: supply, demand and
               share management ................................ 59
        3.2.3  Efficiency as resource governance ............... 61
   3.3  Efficiency and spatial scale ........................... 62
        3.3.1  Efficiency as single technologies in single
               units of production ............................. 63
        3.3.2  Efficiency as scale-related or sector-related
               technologies .................................... 63
   3.4  Efficiency and socio-ecological systems ................ 64
        3.4.1  Efficiency as. industrial ecology and
               recycling ....................................... 64
        3.4.2  Efficiency as industrialising ecosystem
               services ........................................ 67
        3.4.3  Efficiency mediated by resource connections ..... 68
   3.5  Efficiency and perspective ............................. 69
        3.5.1  Efficiency as social partnership ................ 69
        3.5.2  Efficiency as sector-specific; translating
               paradoxes ....................................... 70
        3.5.3  Resource use efficiency as political ecology .... 71
   3.6  Chapter review ......................................... 72
4  A framework of resource efficiency complexity ............... 74
   4.1  Introduction ........................................... 74
   4.2  Environmental, economic and political context .......... 75
   4.3  Sources of resource efficiency complexity .............. 76
   4.4  Primary: definitions, language and understanding of
        efficiency
        4.4.1  Ratio information loss .......................... 77
        4.4.2  Hazards of ambiguous terms and definitions ...... 80
        4.4.3  Paragains: material gains from changes to
               efficiency ...................................... 83
        4.4.4  Prevailing assumptions about losses, wastes
               and wastages .................................... 88
   4.5  Secondary: context, means andparagain destinations ..... 91
        4.5.1  The materiality of losses, wastes and wastages .. 92
        4.5.2  The five means of adjusting efficiency and
               salvaging a loss ................................ 93
        4.5.3  Four efficiency paragain destinations ........... 97
        4.5.4  Appropriative environment: parties/
               destinations capturing paragains ............... 102
        4.5.5  Dynamic and recursive context .................. 104
        4.5.6  The resource efficiency nexus .................. 105
   4.6  Tertiary: scales, nestedness, time/timing and
        neighbourliness ....................................... 106
        4.6.1  Scale: spatial, place, boundaries .............. 106
        4.6.2  Scale: time and timing ......................... 111
        4.6.3  Parasystem distribution; neighbourliness
               revisited ...................................... 114
        4.6.4  Efficiency attribution; spatial, physical,
               biological and economic ........................ 122
        4.6.5  Control, switching and coupling: technologies
               of efficiency improvement ...................... 124
        4.6.6  Lacking data: accounting, measuring and
               monitoring ..................................... 129
        4.6.7  Human expectations of control technologies ..... 131
   4.7  Quaternary: resource expression ....................... 133
        4.7.1  Three-way resource conversions ................. 133
        4.7.2  Fractions as portions and pathways: tracing
               multiple conversions ........................... 134
        4.7.3  Ecosystem services as pathways and options ..... 138
   4.8  Chapter review ........................................ 139
5  The liminal paracommons: Efficiency and transitions ........ 140
   5.1  Liminality as complexity .............................. 140
   5.2  Three types of efficiency paracommons ................. 144
        5.2.1  Introduction ................................... 144
        5.2.2  Productive-consumptive paracommons ............. 144
        5.2.3  Multipath liminal paracommons - irrigation in
               river basins ................................... 146
        5.2.4  Multiservice liminal paracommons - carbon,
               forests and soils .............................. 158
   5.3  The efficiency gain destinations of the three
        liminal paracommons ................................... 165
        5.3.1  Multipath: three paradigms of irrigation
               system efficiency .............................. 165
        5.3.2  Multiservice paracommons in the efficiency
               quadrangle ..................................... 167
        5.3.3  Productive-consumptive paracommons ............. 168
   5.4  Chapter review ........................................ 169
6  Distinctions between the commons and paracommons ........... 171
   6.1  Resource conservation and conversions ................. 173
        6.1.1  The defining conversion process and efficiency
               ratios ......................................... 173
        6.1.2  Withdrawal of resources from the common pool ... 173
        6.1.3  Resource conservation in common pool
               resources ...................................... 174
        6.1.4  Common pool resource 'principles' .............. 175
        6.1.5  Addressing conservation by addressing
               prevailing assumptions ......................... 176
   6.2  Subtractability and competitwn for paragains .......... 178
        6.2.1  Subtractability and rivalry .................... 178
        6.2.2  User/system interconnectivity .................. 179
        6.2.3  Spatiality-conferred claims and competition .... 179
        6.2.4  Property rights and water legislation for
               water conservation ............................. 180
        6.2.5  Pollution in common pool resources ............. 181
   6.3  Chapter review ........................................ 182
7  Significances and applications of the paracommons .......... 183
   7.1  Policy prefiguration and the politics of efficiency ... 183
        7.1.1  Policy prefiguration and paradox ............... 183
        7.1.2  The politics of resource use efficiency ........ 184
        7.1.3  Enlarging policy space: irrigation
               productivity and water allocation .............. 186
        7.1.4  Socialising efficiency ......................... 187
   7.2  Towards cyclical and industrialising ecosystems ....... 191
   7.3  Efficiency kinetics - resource management
        measurement ........................................... 192
   7.4  Climate change mitigation, adaptation and
        resilience ............................................ 197
   7.5  Chapter review ........................................ 199
8  Conclusions ................................................ 200
   8.1  A brief review ........................................ 200
   8.2  Inserting efficiency into the governing of the
        commons ............................................... 201
   8.3  Concluding thoughts ................................... 204

Notes ......................................................... 206
References .................................................... 211
Author index .................................................. 225
Subject index ................................................. 228

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