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ОбложкаShelach-Lavi G. The archaelogy of Early China: from prehistory to the Han dynasty. - New York: Cambridge university press, 2015. - xviii, 373 p.: ill. - Bibliogr.: p.343-359. - Ind.: p.361-373. - ISBN 978-0-521-14525-1
Шифр: (И/Т4-S53) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Figures ........................................................ xi
Acknowledgments .............................................. xvii
Introduction .................................................... 1
A Short Background to the History of Chinese Archaeology ........ 2
A Short Theoretical Framework ................................... 3

1  The Geographic and Environmental Background .................. 7
   Defining "China" ............................................. 7
   The Topography of China ...................................... 9
   The Climate of China ........................................ 12
   Vegetation and Economic Potential ........................... 15
   Ancient Climatic and Geographic Changes and Their Effects ... 17
2  Before Cultivation: Human Origins and the Incipient
   Development of Human Culture in China ....................... 19
   Archaeological Evidence for Early Human Occupation in
   China ....................................................... 19
      The Chronological Setting ................................ 20
      The Earliest Sites ....................................... 21
      Early Paleolithic Sites .................................. 22
      Middle and Late Paleolithic Sites ........................ 27
   The Study of Hominin Remains and the Origins of Human
   Populations in China ........................................ 36
      The "Out of Africa" Model ................................ 38
      The Origins of Homo Sapiens and Modern Human Population
      in China ................................................. 39
   Stone Tools and the Spread of Human Culture ................. 40
3  The Transition to Food Production: Variability and
   Processes ................................................... 45
   What Is Agriculture? ........................................ 46
   Hunter-Gatherers vs. Agriculturalists: How Different Are 
   They? ....................................................... 48
   Archaeological Evidence for the Transition to Agriculture
   in China .................................................... 49
   North China ................................................. 49
      Late Pleistocene Sites ................................... 50
      Early Holocene Sites ..................................... 54
   Central and South China ..................................... 56
      Late Pleistocene Sites 56 Early Holocene Sites ........... 58
   Are We There Yet? Plant and Animal Domestication during
   the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene ..................... 60
   Why Agriculture? Models Explaining the Transition to
   Agriculture in China ........................................ 61
      Climatic Changes and the Transition to Agriculture ....... 62
      Social and Economic Strategies and the Transition to
      Agriculture .............................................. 64
      One Center, Two Centers, Multiple Centers: Geographic
      Diversity, Interregional Interaction, and the
      Transition to Agriculture ................................ 66
4  The Development of Agriculture and Sedentary Life in North
   China ....................................................... 68
   The Material Culture of Early Neolithic Societies in North
   China ....................................................... 70
      Settlement Patterns and Village Organization ............. 70
      Domestic Structures ...................................... 75
      Cemeteries, Burials, and Religious Structures ............ 79
      The Production of Artifacts .............................. 86
   The Economic Adaptation of Early Neolithic Societies in
   North China ................................................. 90
      Domesticated Plants ...................................... 90
      Domesticated Animals ..................................... 92
      The Economic Base of Early Neolithic Societies ........... 94
   The Sociopolitical and Economic Organization of Early
   Neolithic Villages in North China ........................... 95
      Hierarchy and Social Complexity during the Early Part of
      the Early Neolithic Period ............................... 96
      The Economic Organization of Villages during the Early
      Part of the Early Neolithic .............................. 97
   The Emergence of Stratification, Social Complexity, and
   Regional Polities during the Late Phases of the Early
   Neolithic ................................................... 98
   Regional Variability and Interregional Interactions during
   the Early Neolithic Period in North China ................... 99
5  The Shift to Agriculture and Sedentism in Central and South
   China ...................................................... 103
   The Material Culture of Early Neolithic Societies in
   Central and South China .................................... 103
      Settlement Patterns and Village Organization ............ 103
      Domestic Structures ..................................... 106
      Cemeteries, Burials, and Religious Structures ........... 108
   The Production of Artifacts ................................ 113
   The Economic Adaptation of Early Neolithic Societies in
   Central and South China .................................... 116
      Domesticated Plants ..................................... 116
      Domesticated Animals .................................... 118
   The Economic Base of Early Neolithic Societies ............. 118
   The Sociopolitical and Economic Organization of Early
      Neolithic Villages in Central and South China ........... 121
      Setdement Hierarchy and Social Complexity ............... 121
      Economic Organization, Stratification, and Social
      Complexity .............................................. 122
   Regional Variation and Interregional Interactions during
   the Early Neolithic Period in Central and South China ...... 123
      Long-Range Interactions ................................. 124
   Explaining the Advent of Agriculture and the Origins of
   Social and Economic Change ................................. 125
6  The Emergence and Development of Sociopolitical
   Complexity ................................................. 127
   The Material Culture of Late Neolithic Societies in China .. 127
      Settlement Patterns and Site Structure .................. 127
      Domestic and Public Structures .......................... 135
      Cemeteries, Burials, and Ritual Activity ................ 139
      Craft Production and Technology ......................... 144
      Regional Variation and Interregional Interactions
      during the Late Neolithic Period ........................ 148
   Regional Variation ......................................... 148
      Regional and Interregional Interactions ................. 150
   The Rise of Economic, Social, and Political Complexity and
   Stratification during the Late Neolithic ................... 154
      Levels and Forms of Sociopolitical Hierarchy during the
      Late Neolithic .......................................... 154
      The Road to Stratification: Models for the Development
      of Stratification during the Late Neolithic ............. 156
   The "Origins of Chinese Civilization" and the Transmission
   of Cultural Attributes through Time ........................ 159
7  Stepping into History ...................................... 161
   Stepping into History: Are We There Yet (1)? ............... 162
   The Collapse (or Not?) of Late Neolithic Society ........... 164
   The Archaeology of the Early Second MulenniumBCE ........... 167
      The Central Yellow River Basin .......................... 167
      Northwest China and the Ordos Region .................... 176
      Northeast China ......................................... 178
      Other Regions ........................................... 184
   The Earliest State in Chinese History: Are We There Yet
   (2)? ....................................................... 184
      Models of the State and Their Archaeological
      Correlates .............................................. 185
      The Erlitou State Reexamined ............................ 186
   Interregional Interactions during the First Half of the
   Second Millennium ВСЕ ...................................... 191
8  The Shang Dynasty: The Emergence of the State in China ..... 194
   Stepping into History: Historic, Epigraphic, and
   Archaeological Sources for the Study of the Shang .......... 195
   The Archaeology of the Shang Polity ........................ 197
      Chronology of the Shang ................................. 198
      Setdement Patterns and Site Structure ................... 198
      City Organization and Public Structures ................. 200
      Cemeteries, Burials, and Ritual Activity ................ 205
      Craft Production and Technology ......................... 209
   The Oracle Bone Inscriptions ............................... 216
   Shaman or Technocrats? The Religious Functions and 
   Leadership Strategies of Shang Kings ....................... 219
   The Structure and Evolution of the Shang State ............. 220
      The State Economy of the Shang Polity ................... 222
      Power, Institution, and Legitimation: A Model of the 
      Shang State ............................................. 224
   The Formation of Chinese Culture during the Shang Period ... 225
9  Regional Variation and Interregional Interactions during 
   the Bronze Age: "Center and Periphery" or "Interaction
   Spheres"? ................................................. 227
   The Archaeology of Regions Outside the Shang Political
   phere ...................................................... 227
      Chronological Issues .................................... 227
   The Archaeological Record .................................. 228
      Northeast China ......................................... 228
      North and Northwest China ............................... 232
      The Lower and Central Yangzi River Basin ................ 239
      The Sichuan Basin ....................................... 242
      Areas to the West and South of the Yangzi River Basin ... 246
   Regional Variation and Interregional Interactions .......... 247
      Models of Interregional Interaction ..................... 248
      Economic Adaptation of Societies in Northeast and Northwest
      China ................................................... 250
      Economic Exchange and Interregional Interaction ......... 251
      Other Types of Exchange and Interregional Interaction ... 254
      Effects of Interregional Interactions ................... 256
   Long-Range Interactions .................................... 257
      Tarim Basin "Mummies" and East-West Contact during the
      Bronze Age .............................................. 262
10 The Societies and Cultures of the Zhou Period: Processes of
   Globalization and the Genesis of Local Identities .......... 264
   Historical Background ...................................... 264
   The Zhou Administration and the Fall of the Western Zhou ... 265
      The Eastern Zhou: A Multistate System ................... 267
   The Archaeology of the Western and Eastern Zhou ............ 269
      Settlements and the Development of Cities ............... 269
      Public Buildings ........................................ 273
      Long Walls .............................................. 276
      Ritual Structures and Paraphernalia ..................... 278
      Craft Production and Technology ......................... 290
   Economic Changes and Their Effects ......................... 296
      The Evolution of Coins and a Monetary System ............ 298
   Regional Identity and Cross-Regional Integration ........... 300
11 The Son of Heaven and the Creation of a Bureaucratic 
   Empire ..................................................... 306
   Historical Background ...................................... 306
      Qin Unification and Collapse ............................ 306
      The Founding of the Han Dynasty and the Stabilization of
      the Imperial System ..................................... 308
   Centralization and Expansion during Centralization and
   Expansion during the Reign of Han Wudi ..................... 311
   Monuments of Unification: The Archaeology of the Qin
   Unification Policies ....................................... 312
      Communication and Publicity ............................. 312
      Measures of Standardization ............................. 314
      The "Great Wall" ........................................ 315
      The Burial Complex of the First Emperor ................. 316
   Unification, Cultural Integration, and Regional Variation .. 325
      Cultural Integration under the Qin and Its Fate during 
      the Han and Later Periods ............................... 325
      Regional Variation and Resistance to the Unified
      Culture ................................................. 328

   By Way of a Personal Conclusion: The Jade Dragon as an 
   Emblem of Local and National Identity ...................... 337

Notes ......................................................... 341
References .................................................... 343
Index ......................................................... 361

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