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ОбложкаIllari P. Causality: philosophical theory meets: scientific practice / P.Illari, F.Russo. - Oxford: Oxford university press, 2014. - xiv, 310 p.: ill., tab. - Bibliogr.: p.281-302. - Ind.: p.303-310. - ISBN 978-0-19-966267-8
Шифр: (И/Ю2-I.54) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Part I Prelude to Causality
1  PROBLEMS OF CAUSALITY IN THE SCIENCES ........................ 3
   1.1  Why this book on causality? ............................. 3
   1.2  Five scientific problems ................................ 4
   1.3  The contents of this book ............................... 6
2  A SCIENTIFIC TOOLBOX FOR PHILOSOPHY .......................... 9
   2.1  Methods for finding causes .............................. 9
   2.2  Observational methods .................................. 10
   2.3  Experimental methods ................................... 11
   2.4  Between observation and experiment ..................... 14
   2.5  Beyond observation and experiment ...................... 15
   2.6  How to make a study work ............................... 15
3  A PHILOSOPHICAL TOOLBOX FOR SCIENCE ......................... 19
   3.1  Arguments .............................................. 19
   3.2  Methods ................................................ 21
   3.3  Levels of abstraction .................................. 22

Part II Causality: Accounts, Concepts and Methods
4  NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT COMPONENTS ......................... 27
   4.1  Examples: electrical short-circuit and AIDS ............ 27
   4.2  Component causes ....................................... 28
   4.3  INUS causes and related concepts ....................... 30
   4.4  Rothman's pie charts ................................... 32
5  LEVELS OF CAUSATION ......................................... 35
   5.1  Examples: personalized medicine and migration
        behaviours ............................................. 35
   5.2  Three parallel literatures ............................. 36
   5.3  Bridging the levels - and the terminology! ............. 41
6  CAUSALITY AND EVIDENCE ...................................... 46
   6.1  Examples: effects of radiation and smoking causing 
        heart disease .......................................... 46
   6.2  What do we want to know? ............................... 47
   6.3  Evidence for causal relations .......................... 51
   6.4  Evidence-based approaches .............................. 56
7  CAUSAL METHODS: PROBING THE DATA ............................ 60
   7.1  Examples: apoptosis and self-rated health .............. 60
   7.2  The need for causal methods ............................ 61
   7.3  The most widespread causal methods ..................... 64
   7.4  Key notions in causal methods .......................... 67
8  DIFFERENCE-MAKING: PROBABILISTIC CAUSALITY .................. 75
   8.1  Example: smoking and lung cancer ....................... 75
   8.2  Is causality probability-altering? ..................... 76
   8.3  Beyond probabilistic causes ............................ 82
9  DIFFERENCE-MAKING: COUNTERFACTUALS .......................... 86
   9.1  Example: mesothelioma and safety at work ............... 86
   9.2  The unbearable imprecision of counterfactual 
        reasoning .............................................. 87
   9.3  Philosophical views of counterfactuals ................. 88
   9.4  Counterfactuals in other fields ........................ 93
10 DIFFERENCE-MAKING: MANIPULATION AND INVARIANCE .............. 99
   10.1 Example: gene knock-out experiments .................... 99
   10.2 The manipulationists: wiggle the cause, and the 
        effect wiggles too .................................... 100
   10.3 What causes can't we wiggle? .......................... 103
11 PRODUCTION ACCOUNTS: PROCESSES ............................. 111
   11.1 Examples: billiard balls colliding and aeroplanes 
        crossing .............................................. 111
   11.2 Tracing processes ..................................... 112
   11.3 How widely does the approach apply? ................... 114
12 PRODUCTION ACCOUNTS: MECHANISMS ............................ 120
   12.1 Example: how can smoking cause heart disease? ......... 120
   12.2 What is a mechanism? The major mechanists ............. 121
   12.3 Important features of mechanisms and mechanistic 
        explanation ........................................... 127
   12.4 What is not a mechanism? .............................. 132
13 PRODUCTION ACCOUNTS: INFORMATION ........................... 135
   13.1 Examples: tracing transmission of waves and of 
        disease ............................................... 135
   13.2 The path to informational accounts .................... 136
   13.3 Integrating the informational and mechanistic
        approaches ............................................ 143
   13.4 Future prospects for an informational account of 
        causality ............................................. 146
14 CAPACITIES, POWERS, DISPOSITIONS ........................... 150
   14.1 Examples: systems in physics and biology .............. 150
   14.2 The core idea of capacities, powers and dispositions .. 151
   14.3 Capacities in science: explanation and evidence ....... 154
15 REGULARITY ................................................. l6l
   15.1 Examples: natural and social regularities ............. 161
   15.2 Causality as regular patterns ......................... 162
   15.3 Updating regularity for current science ............... 164
16 VARIATION .................................................. 167
   16.1 Example: mother's education and child survival ........ 167
   16.2 The idea of variation ................................. 168
   16.3 Variation in observational and experimental methods ... 172
17 CAUSALITY AND ACTION ....................................... 178
   17.1 Example: symmetry in physics; asymmetry in agency ..... 178
   17.2 Early agency theorists ................................ 179
   17.3 Agency and the symmetry problem ....................... 181
   17.4 Agency and action ..................................... 183
   17.5 Problems for agency theories .......................... 184
   17.6 Merits of agency theories ............................. 186
18 CAUSALITY AND INFERENCE .................................... 188
   18.1 Example: combatting the spread of AIDS ................ 188
   18.2 Different sorts of inferences ......................... 189
   18.3 Does inferentialism lead to anti-realism? ............. 194
   18.4 The heart of inference ................................ 195

Part III Approaches to Examining Causality
19 HOW WE GOT TO THE CAUSALITY IN THE SCIENCES APPROACH 
   (CITS) ..................................................... 201
   19.1 A methodological straggle ............................. 201
   19.2 Causality and language ................................ 202
   19.3 Causality, intuitions and concepts .................... 203
   19.4 Causality in the sciences ............................. 206
20 EXAMPLES AND COUNTEREXAMPLES ............................... 211
   20.1 Examples of examples! ................................. 211
   20.2 Toy examples or scientific examples? .................. 214
   20.3 Counterexamples ....................................... 220
21 truth or models? ........................................... 227
   21.1 Two approaches to causal assessment ................... 227
   21.2 Causal assessment using models ........................ 228
   21.3 Causal assessment identifying truthmakers ............. 230
   21.4 Truth or models? ...................................... 233
22 epistemology, metaphysics, method, semantics, use .......... 237
   22.1 Fragmented theorizing about causality ................. 237
   22.2 Which question to answer when? ........................ 240
   22.3 Which question interests me? .......................... 242
   22.4 Should we integrate the fragments? .................... 243

Part IV Conclusion: Towards a Causal Mosaic
23 Pluralism .................................................. 249
   23.1 If pluralism is the solution, what is the problem? .... 249
   23.2 Various types of causing .............................. 250
   23.3 Various concepts of causation ......................... 251
   23.4 Various types of inferences ........................... 252
   23.5 Various sources of evidence for causal relations ...... 253
   23.6 Various methods for causal inference .................. 253
   23.7 The pluralist mosaic .................................. 255
24 The causal mosaic under construction: the example of 
   exposomics ................................................. 258
   24.1 Making mosaics ........................................ 258
   24.2 Preparing materials for the exposomics mosaic ......... 260
   24.3 Building the exposomics mosaic ........................ 267
   
Aappendix accounts, concepts and methods: summary tables ...... 273
   A.1 The scientific problems of causality ................... 273
   A.2 The philosophical questions about causality ............ 273
   A.3  The accounts: how they fare with scientific problems .. 274
   A.4  The accounts: how they fare with philosophical 
        questions ............................................. 277
   
References .................................................... 281
Index ......................................................... 303

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