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ОбложкаChrostowski L. Silicon photonics design / L.Chrostowski, M.Hochberg. - Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 2015. - xix, 418 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.414-418. - ISBN 978-1-107-08545-9
Шифр: (И/З.85-C56) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
List of contributors ......................................... xiii
Preface ........................................................ xv

Part I. Introduction ............................................ l

1    Fabless silicon photonics .................................. 3
1.1  Introduction ............................................... 3
1.2  Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor
     industry ................................................... 5
     1.2.1  Historical context - Photonics ...................... 6
1.3  Applications ............................................... 7
     1.3.1  Data communication .................................. 8
1.4  Technical challenges and the state of the art ............. 10
     1.4.1  Waveguides and passive components .................. 10
     1.4.2  Modulators ......................................... 12
     1.4.3  Photodetectors ..................................... 13
     1.4.4  Light sources ...................................... 14
     1.4.5  Approaches to photonic-electronic integration ...... 15
            Monolithic integration ............................. 15
            Multi-chip integration ............................. 16
1.5  Opportunities ............................................. 17
     1.5.1  Device engineering ................................. 17
     1.5.2  Photonic system engineering ........................ 17
            A transition from devicesto systems ................ 18
     1.5.3  Tools and support infrastructure ................... 19
            Electronic-photonic co-design ...................... 19
            DFM and yield management ........................... 20
     1.5.4  Basic science ...................................... 20
     1.5.5  Process standardization and a history of MPW
            services ........................................... 20
            ePIXfab and Europractice ........................... 21
            IME ................................................ 21
            OpSIS .............................................. 21
            CMC Microsystems ................................... 22
            Other organizations ................................ 22
            References ......................................... 22

2    Modelling and design approaches ........................... 28
2.1  Optical waveguide mode solver ............................. 28
2.2  Wave propagation .......................................... 31
     2.2.1  3DFDTD ............................................. 31
            FDTD modelling procedure ........................... 32
     2.2.2  2D FDTD ............................................ 35
     2.2.3  Additional propagation methods ..................... 36
            2D FDTD with Effective Index Method ................ 36
            Beam Propagation Method (BPM) ...................... 37
            Eigenmode Expansion Method (EME) ................... 37
            Coupled Mode Theory (CMT) .......................... 38
            Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) ....................... 38
     2.2.4  Passive optical components ......................... 38
2.3  Optoelectronic models ..................................... 39
2.4  Microwave modelling ....................................... 39
2.5  Thermal modelling ......................................... 40
2.6  Photonic circuit modelling ................................ 40
2.7  Physical layout ........................................... 41
2.8  Software tools integration ................................ 42
     References ................................................ 43

Part II. Passive components .................................... 47

3    Optical materials and waveguides .......................... 49
3.1  Silicon-on-insulator ...................................... 49
     3.1.1  Silicon ............................................ 49
            Silicon - wavelength dependence .................... 50
            Silicon - temperature dependence ................... 50
     3.1.2  Silicon dioxide .................................... 51
3.2  Waveguides ................................................ 51
     3.2.1  Waveguide design ................................... 53
     3.2.2  1D slab waveguide - analytic method ................ 53
     3.2.3  Numerical modelling of waveguides .................. 53
     3.2.4  1D slab - numerical ................................ 54
            Convergence tests .................................. 55
            Parameter sweep - slab thickness ................... 57
     3.2.5  Effective Index Method ............................. 57
     3.2.6  Effective Index Method - analytic .................. 59
     3.2.7  Waveguide mode profiles - 2D calculations .......... 60
     3.2.8  Waveguide width - effective index .................. 63
     3.2.9  Wavelength dependence .............................. 65
     3.2.10 Compact models for waveguides ...................... 66
     3.2.11 Waveguide loss ..................................... 69
3.3  Bent waveguides ........................................... 69
     3.3.1  3D FDTD bend simulations ........................... 70
     3.3.2  Eigenmode bend simulations ......................... 73
3.4  Problems .................................................. 75
3.5  Code listings ............................................. 77
     References ................................................ 89

4    Fundamental building blocks ............................... 92
4.1  Directional couplers ...................................... 92
     4.1.1  Waveguide mode solver approach ..................... 93
     Coupler-gap dependence .................................... 94
     Coupler-length dependence ................................. 95
     Wavelength dependence ..................................... 95
     4.1.2  Phase .............................................. 96
     4.1.3  Experimental data .................................. 99
     4.1.4  FDTD modelling .................................... 102
     FDTD versus mode solver .................................. 102
     4.1.5  Sensitivity to fabrication ........................ 103
     4.1.6  Strip waveguide directional couplers .............. 105
     4.1.7  Parasitic coupling ................................ 106
     Delta beta coupling ...................................... 108
4.2  Y-branch ................................................. 110
4.3  Mach-Zehnder interferometer .............................. 113
4.4  Ring resonators .......................................... 115
     4.4.1  Optical transfer function ......................... 115
     4.4.2  Ring resonator experimental results ............... 117
4.5  Waveguide Bragg grating filters .......................... 117
     4.5.1  Theory ............................................ 117
            Grating coupling coefficient ...................... 120
     4.5.2  Design ............................................ 120
            Transfer Matrix Method ............................ 121
            Grating physical structure design ................. 123
            Modelling gratings using FDTD ..................... 125
     4.5.3  Experimental Bragg gratings ....................... 126
            Strip waveguide gratings .......................... 127
            Rib waveguide gratings ............................ 128
            Grating period .................................... 129
     4.5.4  Empirical models for fabricated gratings .......... 130
            Computation lithography models .................... 134
            Additional fabrication considerations ............. 136
     4.5.5  Spiral Bragg gratings ............................. 137
            Thermal sensitivity ............................... 138
     4.5.6  Phase-shifted Bragg gratings ...................... 138
     4.5.7  Multi-period Bragg gratings ....................... 140
     4.5.8  Grating-assisted contra-directional couplers ...... 141
4.6  Problems ................................................. 143
4.7  Code listings ............................................ 144
     References ............................................... 159

5    Optical I/O .............................................. 162
5.1  The challenge of optical coupling to silicon photonic
     chips .................................................... 162
5.2  Grating coupler .......................................... 163
     5.2.1  Performance ....................................... 164
     5.2.2  Theory ............................................ 165
     5.2.3  Design methodology ................................ 168
            Analytic grating coupler design ................... 169
            Design using 2D FDTD simulations .................. 170
            Results ........................................... 172
            Design parameters ................................. 173
            Cladding and buried oxide ......................... 177
            Compact design - focusing ......................... 179
            Mask layout ....................................... 180
            3D simulation ..................................... 181
     5.2.4  Experimental results .............................. 181
5.3  Edge coupler ............................................. 182
     5.3.1  Nano-taper edge coupler ........................... 183
            Mode overlap calculation approach ................. 183
            FDTD approach ..................................... 187
     5.3.2  Edge coupler with overlay waveguide ............... 189
     Eigenmode expansion method ............................... 189
5.4  Polarization ............................................. 190
5.5  Problems ................................................. 193
5.6  Code listings ............................................ 193
     References ............................................... 211

Part III. Active components ................................... 215

6    Modulators ............................................... 217
6.1  Plasma dispersion effect ................................. 217
     6.1.1   Silicon, carrier density dependence .............. 217
6.2  pn-Junction phase shifter ................................ 218
     6.2.1  pn-Junction carrier distribution .................. 218
     6.2.2  Optical phase response ............................ 221
     6.2.3  Small-signal response ............................. 223
     6.2.4  Numerical ТСAD modelling of pn-junctions .......... 224
6.3  Micro-ring modulators .................................... 226
     6.3.1  Ring tuneability .................................. 227
     6.3.2  Small-signal modulation response .................. 228
     6.3.3  Ring modulator design ............................. 231
6.4  Forward-biased PIN junction .............................. 232
     6.4.1   Variable optical attenuator ...................... 232
6.5  Active tuning ............................................ 234
     6.5.1  PIN phase shifter ................................. 235
     6.5.2  Thermal phase shifter ............................. 236
6.6  Thermo-optic switch ...................................... 240
6.7  Problems ................................................. 241
6.8  Code listings ............................................ 242
     References ............................................... 257

7    Detectors ................................................ 259
7.1  Performance parameters ................................... 259
     7.1.1  Responsivity ...................................... 259
     7.1.2  Bandwidth ......................................... 260
            Transit time ...................................... 260
            RC response ....................................... 261
            Dark current ...................................... 262
7.2  Fabrication .............................................. 264
7.3  Types of detectors ....................................... 266
     7.3.1  Photoconductive detector .......................... 266
     7.3.2  PIN detector ...................................... 267
     7.3.3  Avalanche detector ................................ 268
     Charge region design ..................................... 270
7.4  Design considerations .................................... 271
     7.4.1  PIN junction orientation .......................... 271
     7.4.2  Detector geometry ................................. 272
            Detector length ................................... 272
            Detector width .................................... 272
            Detector height ................................... 272
     7.4.3  Contacts .......................................... 273
            Contact material .................................. 273
            Contact geometry .................................. 274
     7.4.4  External load on the detector ..................... 275
7.5  Detector modelling ....................................... 275
     7.5.1  3D FDTD optical simulations ....................... 276
     7.5.2  Electronic simulations ............................ 279
7.6  Problems ................................................. 282
     7.7  Code listings ....................................... 283
     References ............................................... 292

8    Lasers ................................................... 295
8.1  External lasers .......................................... 295
8.2  Laser modelling .......................................... 296
8.3  Co-packaging ............................................. 299
     8.3.1  Pre-made laser .................................... 299
     8.3.2  External cavity lasers ............................ 300
     8.3.3  Etched-pit embedded epitaxy ....................... 301
8.4  Hybrid silicon lasers .................................... 301
8.5  Monolithic lasers ........................................ 303
     8.5.1  III-V Monolithic growth ........................... 303
     8.5.2  Germanium lasers .................................. 304
8.6  Alternative light sources ................................ 306
8.7  Problem .................................................. 307
     References ............................................... 307

Part IV. System design ........................................ 311

9    Photonic circuit modelling ............................... 313
9.1  Need for photonic circuit modelling ...................... 313
9.2  Components for system design ............................. 314
9.3  Compact models ........................................... 314
     9.3.1  Empirical or equivalent circuit models ............ 316
     9.3.2  S-parameters ...................................... 317
9.4  Directional coupler - compact model ...................... 318
     9.4.1  FDTD simulations .................................. 318
     9.4.2  FDTD S-parameters ................................. 320
            Directional coupler S-parameters .................. 321
     9.4.3  Empirical model - polynomial ...................... 323
     9.4.4  S-parameter model passivity ....................... 324
            Passivity assessment .............................. 324
            Passivity enforcement ............................. 325
9.5  Ring modulator - circuit model ........................... 330
9.6  Grating coupler - S-parameters ........................... 330
     9.6.1  Grating coupler circuits .......................... 333
9.7  Code listings ............................................ 333
     References ............................................... 348

10   Tools and techniques ..................................... 349
10.1 Process design kit (PDK) ................................. 349
     10.1.1 Fabrication process parameters .................... 352
            Silicon thickness and etch ........................ 352
            GDS layer map ..................................... 352
            Design rules ...................................... 352
     10.1.2 Library ........................................... 352
     10.1.3 Schematic capture ................................. 353
     10.1.4 Circuit export .................................... 355
     10.1.5 Schematic-driven layout ........................... 356
     10.1.6 Design rule checking .............................. 360
     10.1.7 Layout versus schematic ........................... 361
10.2 Mask layout .............................................. 362
     10.2.1 Components ........................................ 362
     10.2.2 Layout for electrical and optical testing ......... 362
     10.2.3 Approaches for fast GDS layout .................... 364
     10.2.4 Approaches for space-efficient GDS layout ......... 364
     References ............................................... 366

11   Fabrication .............................................. 368
11.1 Fabrication non-uniformity ............................... 368
     11.1.1 Lithography process contours ...................... 369
     11.1.2 Corner analysts ................................... 370
     11.1.3 On-chip non-uniformity, experimental results ...... 372
            Ring resonators ................................... 373
            Grating couplers .................................. 377
11.2 Problems ................................................. 379
     References ............................................... 380

12   Testing and packaging .................................... 381
12.1 Electrical and optical interfacing ....................... 381
     12.1.1 Optical interfaces ................................ 381
            Grating couplers .................................. 381
            Edge couplers ..................................... 382
            Individual fibres ................................. 382
            Spot-size converter ............................... 383
            Fibre array ....................................... 384
            Free-space coupling ............................... 385
            Fibre taper coupling .............................. 386
     12.1.2  Electrical interfaces ............................ 386
            Bond pads ......................................... 386
            Probing ........................................... 387
            Wire bonding ...................................... 388
            Flip-chip bonding ................................. 388
12.2 Automated optical probe stations ......................... 389
     12.2.1 Parts ............................................. 391
            Sample stage ...................................... 391
            Fibre array probe ................................. 392
            Electrical probes ................................. 393
            Microscopes ....................................... 393
     12.2.2 Software .......................................... 393
     12.2.3 Operation ......................................... 394
            Loading and aligning a chip/wafer ................. 395
            Aligning the fibre array .......................... 395
            Chip registration ................................. 396
            Automated device testing .......................... 396
     12.2.4  Optical test equipment ........................... 397
12.3 Design for test .......................................... 398
     12.3.1 Optical power budgets ............................. 400
     12.3.2 Layout considerations ............................. 401
     12.3.3 Design review and checklist ....................... 402
     References ............................................... 404

13   Silicon photonic system example .......................... 406
13.1 Wavelength division multiplexed transmitter .............. 406
     13.1.1 Ring-based WDM transmitter architectures .......... 406
     13.1.2 Common-bus WDM transmitter ........................ 408
     13.1.3 Mod-Mux WDM transmitter ........................... 410
     13.1.4 Conclusion ........................................ 411
     References ............................................... 412

Index ......................................................... 414

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