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ОбложкаNumerical analysis of power system transients and dynamics / ed. by A.Ametani. - London: Institution of engineering and technology, 2015. - xiv, 526 p.: ill., tab. - (IET power and energy series / Institution of engineering and technology (London); vol.78). - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.513-526. - ISBN 978-1-84919-849-3
Шифр: (И/З.1-N92) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ...................................................... xiii

1    Introduction of circuit theory-based approach and
     numerical electromagnetic analysis ......................... 1
     A. Ametani
1.1  Circuit theory-based approach: EMTP ........................ 1
     1.1.1  Summary of the original EMTP ........................ 1
     1.1.2  Nodal analysis ...................................... 2
     1.1.3  Equivalent resistive circuit ........................ 4
     1.1.4  Sparse matrix ....................................... 7
     1.1.5  Frequency-dependent line model ...................... 8
     1.1.6  Transformer ......................................... 9
     1.1.7  Three-phase synchronous machine .................... 10
     1.1.8  Universal machine .................................. 11
     1.1.9  Switches ........................................... 13
     1.1.10 Surge arrester and protective gap (archorn) ........ 16
     1.1.11 Inclusion of nonlinear elements .................... 18
     1.1.12 TACS ............................................... 20
     1.1.13 MODELS (implemented in the ATP-EMTP) ............... 22
     1.1.14 Power system elements prepared in EMTP ............. 24
     1.1.15 Basic input data ................................... 24
1.2  Numerical electromagnetic analysis ........................ 36
     1.2.1  Introduction ....................................... 36
     1.2.2  Maxwell's equations ................................ 37
     1.2.3  NEA method ......................................... 38
     1.2.4  Method of Moments in the time and frequency
            domains ............................................ 38
     1.2.5  Finite-difference time-domain method ............... 41
1.3  Conclusions ............................................... 42
     References ................................................ 42

2    EMTP-ATP .................................................. 47
     M. Kizilcay and H.K. Hoidalen
2.1  Introduction .............................................. 47
2.2  Capabilities .............................................. 48
     2.2.1  Overview ........................................... 48
     2.2.2  Built-in electrical components ..................... 48
     2.2.3  Embedded simulation modules TACS and MODELS ........ 49
     2.2.4  Supporting modules ................................. 50
     2.2.5  Frequency-domain analysis .......................... 52
     2.2.6  Power flow option - FIX SOURCE ..................... 52
     2.2.7  Typical power system studies ....................... 53
2.3  Solution methods .......................................... 53
     2.3.1  Switches ........................................... 53
     2.3.2  Non-linearities .................................... 58
     2.3.3  Transmission lines ................................. 58
     2.3.4  Electrical machines ................................ 62
2.4  Control systems ........................................... 63
     2.4.1  TACS ............................................... 63
     2.4.2  MODELS ............................................. 65
     2.4.3  User-definable component (type 94) ................. 65
2.5  Graphical preprocessor ATPDraw ............................ 66
     2.5.1  Main functionality ................................. 67
     2.5.2  Input dialogues .................................... 68
     2.5.3  Line and cable modelling - LCC module .............. 68
     2.5.4  Transformer modelling - XFMR module ................ 70
     2.5.5  Machine modelling - Windsyn module ................. 72
     2.5.6  MODELS module ...................................... 73
2.6  Other post- and pre-processors ............................ 73
     2.6.1  PlotXY program to view and create scientific
            plots .............................................. 74
     2.6.2  ATPDesigner - design and simulation of electrical
            power networks ..................................... 74
     2.6.3  ATP Analyzer ....................................... 77
2.7  Examples .................................................. 78
     2.7.1  Lightning study - line modelling, flashover and
            current variations ................................. 78
     2.7.2  Neutral coil tuning - optimization ................. 82
     2.7.3  Arc modelling ...................................... 84
     2.7.4  Transformer inrush current calculations ............ 88
     2.7.5  Power system toolbox: relaying ..................... 93
     References ................................................ 99

3    Simulation of electromagnetic transients with EMTP-RV .... 103
     J. Mahseredjian, Ulas Karaagac, Sébastien Dennetière
     and Hani Saad
3.1  Introduction ............................................. 103
3.2  The main modules of EMTP ................................. 103
3.3  Graphical user interface ................................. 104
3.4  Formulation of EMTP network equations for steady-state
     and time-domain solutions ................................ 106
     3.4.1  Modified-augmented-nodal-analysis used in EMTP .... 106
     3.4.2  State-space analysis .............................. 112
3.5  Control Systems .......................................... 114
3.6  Multiphase load-flow solution and initialization ......... 116
     3.6.1  Load-flow constraints ............................. 118
     3.6.2  Initialization of load-flow equations ............. 119
     3.6.3  Initialization from a steady-state solution ....... 119
3.7  Implementation ........................................... 120
3.8  EMTP models .............................................. 120
3.9  External programming interface ........................... 121
3.10 Application examples ..................................... 122
     3.10.1 Switching transient studies ....................... 122
     3.10.2 IEEE-39 benchmark bus example ..................... 124
     3.10.3 Wind generation ................................... 126
     3.10.4 Geomagnetic disturbances .......................... 128
     3.10.5 HVDC transmission ................................. 130
     3.10.6 Very large-scale systems .......................... 132
3.11 Conclusions .............................................. 132
     References ............................................... 132

4    PSCAD/EMTDC .............................................. 135
     D. Woodford, G. Irwin and U.S. Gudmundsdottir
4.1  4 Introduction ........................................... 135
4.2  Capabilities of EMTDC .................................... 138
4.3  Interpolation between time steps ......................... 139
4.4  User-built modelling ..................................... 141
4.5  Interfacing to other programs ............................ 142
     4.5.1  Interfacing to MATLAB/Simulink .................... 142
     4.5.2  Interfacing with the E-TRAN translator ............ 143
4.6  Operations in PSCAD ...................................... 145
     4.6.1  Basic operation in PSCAD .......................... 145
     4.6.2  Hybrid simulation ................................. 146
     4.6.3  Exact modelling of power system equipment ......... 148
     4.6.4  Large and complex power system models ............. 148
4.7  Specialty studies with PSCAD ............................. 149
     4.7.1  Global gain margin ................................ 150
     4.7.2  Multiple control function optimizations ........... 150
     4.7.3  Sub-synchronous resonance ......................... 150
     4.7.4  Sub-synchronous control interaction ............... 151
     4.7.5  Harmonic frequency scan ........................... 152
4.8  Further development of PSCAD ............................. 152
     4.8.1  Parallel processing ............................... 152
     4.8.2  Communications, security and management of
            large system studies .............................. 153
4.9  Application of PSCAD to cable transients ................. 154
     4.9.1  Simulation set-up ................................. 155
     4.9.2  Parameters for cable constant calculations ........ 158
     4.9.3  Cable model improvements .......................... 161
     4.9.4  Summary for application of PSCAD to cable
            transients ........................................ 165
4.10 Conclusions .............................................. 166
     References ............................................... 166

5    XTAP ..................................................... 169
     T. Noda
5.1  Overview ................................................. 169
5.2  Numerical integration by the 2S-DIRK method .............. 169
     5.2.1  The 2S-DIRK integration algorithm ................. 170
     5.2.2  Formulas for linear inductors and capacitors ...... 172
     5.2.3  Analytical accuracy comparisons with other
            integration methods ............................... 174
     5.2.4  Analytical stability and stiff-decay comparisons
            with other integration methods .................... 176
     5.2.5  Numerical comparisons with other integration
            methods ........................................... 177
5.3  Solution by a robust and efficient iterative scheme ...... 184
     5.3.1  Problem description ............................... 187
     5.3.2  Iterative methods ................................. 188
     5.3.3  Iterative scheme used in XTAP ..................... 194
     5.3.4  Numerical examples ................................ 195
5.4  Steady-state initialization method ....................... 205
5.5  Object-oriented design of the simulation code ............ 207
     References ............................................... 208

6    Numerical electromagnetic analysis using the FDTD
     method ................................................... 213
     Y. Baba
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 213
6.2  FDTD method .............................................. 214
     6.2.1  Fundamentals ...................................... 214
     6.2.2  Advantages and disadvantages ...................... 217
6.3  Representations of lightning return-stroke channels
     and excitations .......................................... 217
     6.3.1  Lightning return-stroke channels .................. 217
     6.3.2  Excitations ....................................... 220
6.4  Applications ............................................. 221
     6.4.1  Lightning electromagnetic fields at close and
            far distances ..................................... 221
     6.4.2  Lightning surges on overhead power transmission
            lines and towers .................................. 227
     6.4.3  Lightning surges on overhead power distribution
            lines ............................................. 233
     6.4.4  Lightning electromagnetic environment in power
            substation ........................................ 236
     6.4.5  Lightning electromagnetic environment in
            airborne vehicles ................................. 236
     6.4.6  Lightning surges and electromagnetic environment
            in buildings ...................................... 238
     6.4.7  Surges on grounding electrodes .................... 238
6.5  Summary .................................................. 239
     References ............................................... 239

7    Numerical electromagnetic analysis with the PEEC method .. 247
     Peerawut Yutthagowith
7.1  Mixed potential integral equations ....................... 250
7.2  Formulation of the generalized PEEC models ............... 252
     7.2.1  Derivation of the generalized PEEC method ......... 252
     7.2.2  Circuit interpretation of the PEEC method ......... 257
     7.2.3  Discretization of PEEC elements ................... 258
     7.2.4  PEEC models for a plane half space ................ 259
7.3  Some approximate aspects of PEEC models .................. 260
     7.3.1  Center-to-center retardation approximation ........ 260
     7.3.2  Quasi-static PEEC models .......................... 262
     7.3.3  Partial element calculation ....................... 262
7.4  Matrix formulation and solution .......................... 266
     7.4.1  Frequency domain circuit equations and the
            solution .......................................... 267
     7.4.2  Time-domain circuit equations and the solution .... 269
7.5  Stability of PEEC models ................................. 272
     7.5.1  +PEEC formulation ................................. 273
     7.5.2  Parallel damping resistors ........................ 273
7.6  Electromagnetic field calculation by the PEEC model ...... 274
7.7  Application examples ..................................... 277
     7.7.1  Surge characteristics of transmission towers ...... 277
     7.7.2  Surge characteristics of grounding systems ........ 284
     References ............................................... 286

8    Lightning surges in renewable energy system components ... 291
     K. Yamamoto
8.1  Lightning surges in a wind turbine ....................... 291
     8.1.1  Overvoltage caused by lightning surge
            propagation on a wind turbine ..................... 291
     8.1.2  Earthing characteristics of a wind turbine ........ 300
     8.1.3  Example of lightning accidents and its
            investigations .................................... 308
8.2  Solar power generation system ............................ 318
     8.2.1  Lightning surges in a MW-class solar power
            generation system ................................. 319
     8.2.2  Overvoltage caused by a lightning strike to
            a solar power generation system ................... 339
     References ............................................... 354

9    Surges on wind power plants and collection systems ....... 359
     Y. Yasuda
9.1  Introduction ............................................. 359
9.2  Winter lightning and back-flow surge ..................... 361
9.3  Earthing system of wind turbines and wind power plants ... 362
     9.3.1  Earthing system of WTs ............................ 362
     9.3.2  Earthing system in WPPs ........................... 363
9.4  Wind power plant models for lightning surge analysis ..... 363
     9.4.1  WPP model ......................................... 363
     9.4.2  Model for winter lightning ........................ 365
     9.4.3  Model for surge protection device (SPD) ........... 365
     9.4.4  Comparison analysis between ARENE and PSCAD/
            EMTDC ............................................. 367
9.5  Mechanism of SPD's burnout incidents due to back-flow
     surge .................................................... 368
     9.5.1  Analysis of the surge propagations in WPP ......... 368
     9.5.2  Detail analysis on surge waveforms ................ 369
9.6  Effect of overhead earthing wire to prevent back-flow
     surge .................................................... 370
     9.6.1  Model of a collection line in a WPP ............... 371
     9.6.2  Observation of waveforms around SPDs .............. 372
     9.6.3  Evaluation of the possibility of the SPD's
            burning out ....................................... 373
     9.6.4  Evaluation of potential rise of earthing system ... 376
9.7  Conclusions .............................................. 377
     Symbols and abbreviations ................................ 377
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 378
     References ............................................... 378

10   Protective devices: fault locator and high-speed
     switchgear ............................................... 381
     T. Funabashi
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 381
10.2 Fault locator ............................................ 381
     10.2.1 Fault locator algorithm ........................... 382
     10.2.2 Fault locator model description using MODELS ...... 383
     10.2.3 Study on influence of fault arc characteristics ... 385
     10.2.4 Study on influence of errors in input devices ..... 389
10.3 High-speed switchgear .................................... 393
     10.3.1 Modeling methods .................................. 395
     10.3.2 Comparative study with measurement ................ 395
     10.3.3 Influence of voltage sag magnitude ................ 397
10.4 Conclusions .............................................. 400
     References ............................................... 400

11   Overvoltage protection and insulation coordination ....... 403
     T. Ohno
11.1 Classification of overvoltages ........................... 403
     11.1.1 Temporary overvoltage ............................. 404
     11.1.2 Slow-front overvoltage ............................ 405
     11.1.3 Fast-front overvoltage ............................ 406
     11.1.4 Very-fast-front overvoltage ....................... 407
11.2 Insulation coordination study ............................ 408
     11.2.1 Study flow ........................................ 408
     11.2.2 Determination of the representative
            overvoltages ...................................... 408
     11.2.3 Steps following the determination of the
            representative overvoltages ....................... 410
11.3 Selection of surge arresters ............................. 412
     11.3.1 Continuous operating voltage ...................... 412
     11.3.2 Rated voltage ..................................... 413
     11.3.3 Nominal discharge current ......................... 413
     11.3.4 Protective levels ................................. 413
     11.3.5 Energy absorption capability ...................... 414
     11.3.6 Rated short-circuit current ....................... 415
     11.3.7 Study flow ........................................ 415
11.4 Example of the transient analysis ........................ 416
     11.4.1 Model setup ....................................... 416
     11.4.2 Results of the analysis ........................... 422
     References ............................................... 428

12   FACTS: voltage-sourced converter ......................... 431
     K. Temma
12.1 Category ................................................. 431
12.2 Control system and simulation modeling ................... 433
12.3 Application of STATCOM ................................... 434
     12.3.1 Voltage fluctuation ............................... 435
     12.3.2 Small-signal stability ............................ 436
     12.3.3 Voltage stability ................................. 437
     12.3.4 Transient stability ............................... 441
     12.3.5 Overvoltage suppression ........................... 442
12.4 High-order harmonic resonance phenomena .................. 444
     12.4.1 Overview of high-order harmonic resonance
            phenomenon ........................................ 444
     12.4.2 Principle of high-order harmonic resonance
            phenomenon ........................................ 450
     12.4.3 Field test ........................................ 453
     12.4.4 Considerations and countermeasures ................ 455
     References ............................................... 457

13   Application of SVC to cable systems ...................... 461
     Y. Tamura
13.1 AC cable interconnection to an island .................... 461
13.2 Typical example of voltage variations in an island ....... 461
13.3 The required control function for the SVC ................ 463
13.4 V-I characteristics of the SVC ........................... 463
13.5 Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) of the SVC ............. 465
13.6 Transient analysis model ................................. 466
13.7 Control parameter settings survey ........................ 467
13.8 Comparison of the simulation results ..................... 469
13.9 The applied control parameters ........................... 472
13.10 Verification by the transient analysis .................. 473
13.11 Verification at the commissioning test .................. 475
13.12 Summary ................................................. 478
     References ............................................... 479

14   Transients on grounding systems .......................... 481
     S. Visacro
14.1 Introduction: power system transients and grounding ...... 481
14.2 Basic considerations on grounding systems ................ 482
14.3 The response of grounding electrodes subjected to
     transients currents ...................................... 484
     14.3.1 Introduction ...................................... 484
     14.3.2 Behavior of grounding electrodes subjected to
            harmonic currents ................................. 484
     14.3.3 The frequency dependence of soil resistivity
            and permittivity .................................. 488
     14.3.4 Behavior of grounding electrodes subjected to
            impulsive currents ................................ 492
     14.3.5 The soil ionization effect ........................ 496
14.4 Numerical simulation of the transient response of
     grounding electrodes ..................................... 497
     14.4.1 Preliminary considerations ........................ 497
     14.4.2 General results of the response of grounding
            electrodes ........................................ 499
     14.4.3 Grounding potential rise of electrodes subject
            to lightning currents ............................. 501
     14.4.4 Impulse impedance and impulse coefficient for
            first and subsequent return-stroke currents ....... 502
14.5 Case example: analysis of the influence of grounding
     electrodes on the lightning response of transmission
     lines .................................................... 503
     References ............................................... 508

Index ......................................................... 513

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