Monday, October 17, 2016 Ghasem N. Principles of chemical engineering processes: material and energy balances (Boca Raton, 2015). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаGhasem N. Principles of chemical engineering processes: material and energy balances / N.Ghasem, R.Henda. - 2nd ed. - Boca Raton: CRC press/Taylor & Francis, 2015. - xxi, 446 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.437-446. - ISBN 978-1-4822-2228-9
Шифр: (И/Л1-G42) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ....................................................... iii
Acknowledgments ................................................ xv
Authors ...................................................... xvii
Systems of Units .............................................. xix
Conversion Factors ............................................ xxi

1.   Introduction ............................................... 1
     Learning Objectives ........................................ 1
1.1  Definitions of Chemical Engineering ........................ 2
1.2  Sets of Units and Unit Conversion .......................... 3
     1.2.1  Conversion of Units ................................. 3
     1.2.2  Temperature Measurement ............................. 5
     1.2.3  Temperature Conversion .............................. 6
1.3  Significant Figures ........................................ 8
     1.3.1  Multiplication, Division, Addition, and Subtraction
            of Significant Numbers .............................. 9
1.4  Dimensional Homogeneity ................................... 10
     1.4.1  Dimensionless Quantities ........................... 11
1.5  Process and Process Variables ............................. 13
     1.5.1  Process Flow Sheet ................................. 13
     1.5.2  Process Unit ....................................... 13
     1.5.3  Process Streams .................................... 13
     1.5.4  Density, Mass, and Volume .......................... 13
     1.5.5  Mass and Volumetric Flow Rates ..................... 14
     1.5.6  Moles and Molecular Weight ......................... 16
1.6  Compositions of Streams ................................... 17
     1.6.1  Mass Fraction and Mole Fraction .................... 17
     1.6.2  Concentration ...................................... 19
1.7  Pressure Measurement ...................................... 22
     1.7.1  Types of Pressures ................................. 23
     1.7.2  Standard Temperature and Pressure .................. 24
     1.7.3  Pressure-Sensing Devices ........................... 25
1.8  Process Classification and Material Balance ............... 38
     1.8.1  Material and Energy Balances ....................... 38
     Homework Problems ......................................... 39
     References ................................................ 42

2.   Process Units and Degrees of Freedom Analysis ............. 43
     Learning Objectives ....................................... 43
2.1  Process Units: Basic Functions ............................ 44
     2.1.1  Divider (Splitter) ................................. 44
     2.1.2  Mixer (Blender) .................................... 44
     2.1.3  Dryer (Direct Heating) ............................. 44
     2.1.4  Filter ............................................. 45
     2.1.5  Distillation Column ................................ 46
     2.1.6  Multieffect Evaporator ............................. 46
     2.1.7  Dehumidification ................................... 48
     2.1.8  Humidifier ......................................... 48
     2.1.9  Leaching and Extraction ............................ 49
     2.1.10 Absorber (Stripper) ................................ 49
     2.1.11 Partial Condenser and Flash Separator .............. 50
     2.1.12 Flash Separator .................................... 50
     2.1.13 Crystallizer ....................................... 51
     2.1.14 Reactors ........................................... 51
     2.1.15 Batch Reactor ...................................... 52
     2.1.16 PFRs and PBRs ...................................... 53
     2.1.17 CSTR and Fluidized Bed Reactor ..................... 53
2.2  Process Flow Diagram ...................................... 53
     2.3  Labeling a PFD ....................................... 54
     2.4  Degrees of Freedom Analysis .......................... 55
          2.4.1  Possible Outcomes of DFA ...................... 56
     2.5  Independent Equations ................................ 56
     2.6  MultiunitPFD ......................................... 66
     2.7  DFA, Multiunit Process ............................... 68
     Homework Problems ......................................... 71
     References ................................................ 74

3.   Material Balance on Single-Unit Process ................... 75
     Learning Objectives ....................................... 75
3.1  Introduction to Material Balance .......................... 75
3.2  Material Balance Fundamentals ............................. 77
3.3  Mass Balance on Steady-State Processes .................... 78
     3.3.1  Stream Specification ............................... 78
3.4  Basis for Calculation ..................................... 83
     3.4.1  Procedure for Solving Material Balance Problems .... 83
     Homework Problems ........................................ 100
     References ............................................... 102

4.   Multiunit Process Calculations ........................... 105
     Learning Objectives ...................................... 105
4.1  Multiunit Process ........................................ 105
4.2  Degrees of Freedom Analysis .............................. 106
4.3  Recycle, Bypass, Purge, and Makeup ....................... 108
     4.3.1  Recycle ........................................... 108
     4.3.2  Bypass ............................................ 109
     4.3.3  Purge ............................................. 109
     4.3.4  Makeup ............................................ 110
     Homework Problems ........................................ 132
     References ............................................... 135

5.   Material Balances on Reactive Systems .................... 137
     Learning Objectives ...................................... 137
5.1  Stoichiometry Basics ..................................... 138
     5.1.1  Stoichiometric Equation ........................... 138
     5.1.2  Stoichiometric Coefficients ....................... 138
     5.1.3  Stoichiometric Ratio .............................. 138
     5.1.4  Limiting Reactant ................................. 139
     5.1.5  Excess Reactants .................................. 139
     5.1.6  Fractional Conversion ............................. 143
5.2  General Material Balance ................................. 143
     5.2.1  Differential Balance .............................. 144
     5.2.2  Integral Balance .................................. 144
     5.2.3  Formulation Approaches of Mass Balance ............ 145
5.3  Extent of Reaction Method for a Single Reaction .......... 145
5.4  Element or Atomic Balance Method ......................... 147
5.5  Molecular or Component Balance Approach .................. 147
5.6  Extent of Reaction and Multiple Reactions ................ 157
5.7  Molecular Species Approach for Multiple Reactions ........ 162
5.8  Degrees of Freedom Analysis for Reactive Processes ....... 168
     5.8.1  Chemical Equilibrium .............................. 169
5.9  Combustion Reactions ..................................... 172
     5.9.1  Theoretical and Excess Air ........................ 172
     Homework Problems ........................................ 179
     References ............................................... 182

6.   Multiple-Unit Systems Involving Reaction, Recycle, and
     Purge .................................................... 183
     Learning Objectives ...................................... 183
6.1  Multiple-Unit Process Flowcharts ......................... 183
     6.1.1  Flow Sheet for Reaction with Recycle .............. 184
     6.1.2  Reaction with Product Splitter and Recycle ........ 184
     6.1.3  Reaction with Recycle and Purge ................... 185
6.2  Degrees of Freedom Analysis for Reactive Multiple-Unit
     Processes ................................................ 186
6.3  Reaction and Multiple-Unit Steady-State Processes ........ 192
     Homework Problems ........................................ 208
     References ............................................... 214

7.   Single- and Multiphase Systems ........................... 215
7.1  Single-Phase Systems ..................................... 215
     7.1.1  Liquid and Solid Densities ........................ 216
7.2  Ideal Gas Equation of State .............................. 217
     7.2.1  Gas Density ....................................... 219
7.3  Real Gas Relationships ................................... 220
     7.3.1  Compressibility Factor (z) ........................ 221
     7.3.2  Virial Equation of State .......................... 222
     7.3.3  van der Waals Equation of State ................... 222
     7.3.4  Soave-Redlich-Kwong Equation of State ............. 223
     7.3.5  Kay's Mixing Rules ................................ 225
7.4  Multiphase Systems ....................................... 228
     7.4.1  Phase Diagram ..................................... 228
     7.4.2  Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Curve .................... 228
7.5  Vapor Pressure Estimation ................................ 229
     7.5.1  Clapeyron Equation ................................ 230
     7.5.2  Clausius-Clapeyron Equation ....................... 230
     7.5.3  Cox Chart ......................................... 231
     7.5.4  Antoine Equation .................................. 231
7.6  Partial Pressure ......................................... 234
     7.6.1  Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures ................. 234
     7.6.2  Raoult's Law for a Single Condensable Species ..... 235
7.7  Gibbs' Phase Rule ........................................ 241
7.8  Bubble Point, Dew Point, and Critical Point .............. 242
     Homework Problems ........................................ 244
     References ............................................... 246

8    Energy and Energy Balances ............................... 247
     Learning Objectives ...................................... 247
8.1  Energy Balance for Closed and Open Systems ............... 247
     8.1.1  Forms of Energy: The First Law of Thermodynamics .. 248
     8.1.2  Energy Balance for a Closed System ................ 248
       8.1.2.1  Kinetic Energy ................................ 249
       8.1.2.2  Potential Energy .............................. 251
     8.1.3  Energy Balance for an Open System ................. 253
     8.1.4  Steam Turbine ..................................... 257
     8.1.5  Heaters and Coolers ............................... 259
     8.1.6  Compressors ....................................... 261
8.2  Mechanical Energy Balance ................................ 263
8.3  Bernoulli's Equation ..................................... 267
8.4  Enthalpy Calculations .................................... 268
     8.4.1  Enthalpy Change as a Result of Temperature ........ 268
     8.4.2  Constant Heat Capacity ............................ 271
8.5  Enthalpy Calculations with Phase Changes ................. 274
     8.5.1  Energy Balance for Open Systems with Multiple
            Inputs and Multiple Outputs ....................... 276
     8.5.2  Enthalpy Change because of Mixing ................. 279
     8.5.3  Energy Balance for Bioprocesses ................... 281
8.6  Psychrometric Chart ...................................... 283
8.7  Summary .................................................. 293
     Homework Problems ........................................ 293
     References ............................................... 297

9.   Energy Balance with Reaction ............................. 299
     Learning Objectives ...................................... 299
9.1  Heat of Reaction ......................................... 299
9.2  Heats of Formation and Heat of Combustion ................ 300
     9.2.1  Extent of Reaction ................................ 304
     9.2.2  Reactions in Closed Processes ..................... 304
9.3  Energy Balance for Reactive Processes .................... 307
     9.3.1  Heat of Reaction Method ........................... 307
     9.3.2  Heat of Formation or Element Balance Method ....... 308
9.4  Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances ................ 309
     9.4.1  Unknown Process Exit Temperature .................. 322
9.5  Combustion Processes ..................................... 327
9.6  Energy Balance in Bioprocesses ........................... 332
9.7  Energy Balance in Membrane Reactors ...................... 334
9.8  Summary .................................................. 338
     Homework Problems ........................................ 339
     References ............................................... 342

10.  Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances ................ 343
     Learning Objectives ...................................... 343
10.1 Material Balances ........................................ 343
     10.1.1 Conversion ........................................ 343
     10.1.2 Yield ............................................. 344
     10.1.3 Selectivity ....................................... 344
     10.1.4 Extent of Reaction (Ј) ............................ 344
10.2 Energy Balances .......................................... 345
     10.2.1 Heat of Reaction Method ........................... 345
     10.2.2 Heat of Formation Method .......................... 345
     10.2.3 Concept of Atomic Balances ........................ 346
     10.2.4 Mathematical Formulation of the Atomic Balance .... 346
     10.2.5 Degrees of Freedom Analysis for the Atomic
            Balance ........................................... 346
     10.2.6 Implementing Recycle on the Separation Process .... 349
     Homework Problems ........................................ 375
     References ............................................... 381

11   Unsteady-State Material and Energy Balances .............. 383
     Learning Objectives ...................................... 383
11.1 Unsteady-State Material Balance .......................... 383
11.2 Unsteady-State Energy Balance ............................ 394
     Homework Problems ........................................ 405
     References ............................................... 406

Appendix ...................................................... 407
Index ......................................................... 437

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