Pearsall T.P. Photonics essentials (New York, 2010). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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CoverPearsall T.P. Photonics essentials. - 2nd ed. - New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. - xiii, 304 p.: ill. - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.299-304. - ISBN 978-0-07-162935-5
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Part I Introductory Concepts

Chapter 1. Introduction ......................................... 3

Chapter 2. Electrons and Photons ................................ 7
2.1   Introduction .............................................. 7
2.2   The Fundamental Relationships ............................. 8
      Ludwig Boltzmann .......................................... 8
2.3   Properties of Photons .................................... 10
2.4   Properties of Electrons .................................. 14
2.5   Some History ............................................. 19
2.6   Changing Places: How Electrons Behave in Solids .......... 22
2.7   Summary .................................................. 28
Bibliography ................................................... 29
Problems ....................................................... 30

Part II Photonic Devices

Chapter 3. Photodiodes ......................................... 35
3.1   Introduction ............................................. 35
3.2   The Current-Voltage Equation for Photodiodes ............. 36
3.3   Photodiode Operation: The Photocurrent Mode and the
      Photovoltage Mode ........................................ 45
3.4   Photodiode Properties .................................... 46
      3.4.1  Spectral Response ................................. 46
      3.4.2  Quantum Efficiency ................................ 49
3.5   Summary .................................................. 54
Bibliography ................................................... 55
Problems ....................................................... 56

Chapter 4. Electrical Response Time of Diodes .................. 59
4.1   Introduction ............................................. 59
4.2   Modeling the Response Time of Photodiodes ................ 60
4.3   Diffusion Time ........................................... 61
4.4   Drift .................................................... 63
4.5   The Resistance-Capacitance Response Time ................. 64
4.6   Capacitance of Diodes in Forward Bias .................... 68
4.7   Measurement of Diode Capacitance and Carrier
      Concentration ............................................ 69
4.8   Application to Light-Emitting Diodes ..................... 70
4.9   Summary .................................................. 71
Bibliography ................................................... 71
Problems ....................................................... 72

Chapter 5. Photoconductivity ................................... 75
5.1   Introduction ............................................. 75
5.2   Conductivity and Mobility ................................ 75
5.3   Gain and Bandwidth ....................................... 77
5.4   Engineering Photoconductivity ............................ 81
5.5   Photographic Film and Photoconductivity .................. 85
5.6   Sensitization ............................................ 89
5.7   Summary .................................................. 94
Bibliography ................................................... 96
Problems ....................................................... 97

Chapter 6. Light-Emitting Diodes ............................... 99
6.1   Introduction ............................................. 99
6.2   Recombination of Excess Carriers—Direct Generation of
      Light ................................................... 101
6.3   The Energy Spectrum of Light ............................ 105
6.4   Quantum Efficiency ...................................... 111
6.5   Beating the Experts: New Thinking Creates a Pathway to
      Increased Efficiency .................................... 113
6.6   Response Time ........................................... 119
6.7   Steady-State Input Electrical Current and Output LED
      Optical Power ........................................... 120
6.8   Rise Time of the Light-Emitting Diode ................... 125
6.9   Summary ................................................. 132
6.10  Review of Important Concepts ............................ 133
Bibliography .................................................. 134
Problems ...................................................... 135

Chapter 7. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes ...................... 139
7.1   Introduction ............................................ 139
7.2   Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: A Revolutionary Light
      Source .................................................. 143
7.3   Energy Band Structure of Organic Semiconductors ......... 147
7.4   Optoelectronic Organic Materials ........................ 148
      7.4.1  Polymer and Small Molecule Structures ............ 148
      7.4.2  Organic Semiconductor Doping to Modify
             Electrical Conductivity .......................... 152
7.5   OLED structures ......................................... 154
      7.5.1  Energy-Level Diagram ............................. 154
      7.5.2  Organic Semiconductor Doping to Modify Optical
             Emission Efficiency .............................. 157
7.6   Current-Voltage Characteristic .......................... 158
      7.6.1  Zero Bias ........................................ 158
      7.6.2  Flat-Band Condition .............................. 159
7.7   Coupling the Light Out of the Diode ..................... 162
7.8   Conclusions ............................................. 163
Bibliography .................................................. 166
Problems and Exercises ........................................ 167

Chapter 8. Lasers ............................................. 169
8.1   Amplifiers and Feedback ................................. 170
8.2   Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission ..................... 172
8.3   Optical Gain ............................................ 175
8.4   Obtaining Population Inversion .......................... 178
8.5   Optical Feedback—Making a Laser ......................... 184
8.6   Threshold—Going Over the Edge ........................... 189
8.7   A True Story ............................................ 193
8.8   Summary ................................................. 194
Bibliography .................................................. 196
Problems and Exercises ........................................ 197

Part III Advanced Topics

Chapter 9. Direct Modulation of Laser Diodes .................. 201
9.1   Introduction ............................................ 201
9.2   Time-Dependent Behavior of Laser Diodes during Current
      Modulation .............................................. 203
      Part 1. Before the laser reaches threshold: 0 < t <
              τd .............................................. 206
      Part 2. After the laser has reached threshold: τd < t
              < T0 where T0 is the bit period ................. 208
9.3  Summary .................................................. 212
Bibliography .................................................. 212
Problems and Exercises ........................................ 213

Chapter 10. Optical Fibers and Optical Fiber Amplifiers ....... 215
10.1  Introduction ............................................ 215
10.2  Glass ................................................... 217
10.3  Optical Fiber Engineering ............................... 219
10.4  Waveguiding in Optical Fibers ........................... 222
10.5  More Capacity ........................................... 227
10.6  Optical Amplifiers ...................................... 235
10.7  Summary ................................................. 242
Bibliography .................................................. 243
Problems ...................................................... 244

Part IV Characterizing Photonic Devices in the Laboratory

Chapter 11. Measurements in Photonics ......................... 249
11.1  Introduction ............................................ 249
11.2  Lenses .................................................. 250
11.3  Monochromators and Spectrometers ........................ 252
11.4  Gratings ................................................ 254
11.5  Mirrors ................................................. 256
11.6  The Spectrometer/Monochromator System ................... 257
11.7  Lock-in Amplifier ....................................... 258
11.8  Chopping Wheel or Chopper ............................... 260
11.9  Photon Detectors ........................................ 261
11.10 Curve Tracer ............................................ 262
11.11 Summary ................................................. 262
Bibliography .................................................. 262
Problems ...................................................... 263

Chapter 12. Experimental Photonics: Device Characterization
            in the Laboratory ................................. 265
Introduction .................................................. 265
12.1  Current-Voltage Characteristics of Photodiodes and
      LEDs .................................................... 266
      12.1.1  Objectives ...................................... 266
      12.1.2  Background ...................................... 266
      12.1.3  Recommended Equipment ........................... 266
      12.1.4  Procedure ....................................... 266
      12.1.5  Analysis ........................................ 268
12.2  Detection Using the Lock-in Amplifier ................... 269
      12.2.1  Objectives ...................................... 269
      12.2.2  Background ...................................... 269
      12.2.3  Recommended Equipments .......................... 269
      12.2.4  Procedure ....................................... 270
      12.2.5  Analysis ........................................ 271
12.3  Optica) Measurements Using the Monochromator and
      Spectrometer ............................................ 272
      12.3.1  Objectives ...................................... 272
      12.3.2  Background ...................................... 272
      12.3.3  Recommended Equipment ........................... 273
      12.3.4  Procedure ....................................... 273
      12.3.5  Analysis ........................................ 276
12.4  Optical Properties of Light-Emitting Diodes ............. 277
      12.4.1  Objectives ...................................... 277
      12.4.2  Background ...................................... 277
      12.4.3  Procedure ....................................... 278
      12.4.4  Analysis ........................................ 278
12.5  Device Capacitance ...................................... 279
      12.5.1  Objectives ...................................... 279
      12.5.2  Background ...................................... 279
      12.5.3  Recommended Equipment ........................... 279
      12.5.4  Procedure ....................................... 279
      12.5.5  Analysis ........................................ 281
12.6  Characterization of Lasers .............................. 283
      12.6.1  Objectives ...................................... 283
      12.6.2  Background ...................................... 283
      12.6.3  Recommended Equipments .......................... 284
      12.6.4  Procedure ....................................... 284
      12.6.5  Measurements to Make ............................ 291
      12.6.6  Questions to Think About ........................ 294
      12.6.7  Analysis ........................................ 297

Index ......................................................... 299

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