Restoration and management of lakes and reservoirs
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Restoration and management of lakes and reservoirs / Cooke G.D., Welch E.B., Peterson S.A., Nichols S.A. - 3rd ed. - Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, 2005. - 591 p. - ISBN 1-56670-625-4.
 
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SECTION I  Overview

Chapter 1 Introduction ..................................................... 3
1.1 The Hydrologic Cycle and the Quantity of Fresh Water ................... 3
1.2 Status of Fresh Water in the United States ............................. 7
1.3 Sources of Lake and Reservoir Problems ................................ 11
1.4 Restoration and Management of Lakes and Reservoirs .................... 13
1.5 History of Lake Restoration and Management ............................ 15
References ................................................................ 17

Chapter 2 Basic Limnology ................................................. 23
2.1 Introduction .......................................................... 23
2.2 Lakes and Reservoirs .................................................. 23
2.3 Basic Limnology ....................................................... 26
    2.3.1 Physical-Chemical Limnology ..................................... 26
2.4 Biological Limnology .................................................. 28
2.5 Limiting Factors ...................................................... 30
2.6 The Eutrophication Process ............................................ 31
2.7 Characteristics of Shallow and Deep Lakes ............................. 33
2.8 Ecoregions and Attainable Lake Conditions ............................. 34
2.9 Summary ............................................................... 41
References ................................................................ 41

Chapter 3 Lake and Reservoir Diagnosis and Evaluation ..................... 47
3.1 Introduction .......................................................... 47
3.2 Diagnosis/Feasibility Studies ......................................... 47
    3.2.1 Watershed ....................................................... 47
    3.2.2 In-Lake ......................................................... 53
    3.2.3 Data Evaluation ................................................. 57
          3.2.3.1 Example 1 ............................................... 70
          3.2.3.2 Example 2 ............................................... 71
3.3 Selection of Lake Restoration Alternatives ............................ 73
    3.3.1 Algal Problems .................................................. 73
          3.3.1.1 Nutrient Diversion/Advanced Waste Treatment ............. 73
          3.3.3.1 P Inactivation .......................................... 73
          3.3.3.2 Dilution/Flushing ....................................... 74
          3.3.3.3 Lake Protection From Urban Runoff ....................... 74
          3.3.3.4 Hypolimnetic Withdrawal ................................. 74
          3.3.3.5 Artificial Circulation .................................. 74
          3.3.3.6 Food-Web Manipulations .................................. 74
          3.3.3.7 Copper Sulfate Treatment ................................ 74
    3.3.4 Macrophyte Problems ............................................. 74
          3.3.4.1 Harvesting .............................................. 75
          3.3.4.2 Biological Controls ..................................... 75
          3.3.4.3 Lake-Level Drawdown ..................................... 75
          3.3.4.4 Sediment Covers ......................................... 75
          3.3.4.5 Sediment Removal ........................................ 75
          3.3.4.6 Hypolimnetic Aeration ................................... 75
3.5 Guidelines for Choosing Lake Restoration Alternatives ................. 76
3.6 The Lake Improvement Restoration Plan ................................. 78
References ................................................................ 80


SECTION II  Algal Biomass Control Techniques Directed
            toward Control of Plankton Algae

Chapter 4 Lake and Reservoir Response to Diversion and Advanced
          Wastewater Treatment ............................................ 89
4.1  General .............................................................. 89
4.2  Techniques for Reducing External Nutrient Loads ...................... 90
4.3  Recovery of World Lakes .............................................. 91
4.4  Lake Washington, Washington .......................................... 95
4.5  Lake Sammamish, Washington ........................................... 98
4.6  Lake Norrviken, Sweden .............................................. 100
4.7  Shagawa Lake, Minnesota ............................................. 101
4.8  Madison Lakes, Wisconsin ............................................ 103
4.8  Lake Zurich, Switzerland ............................................ 104
4.9  Lake Sobygaard, Denmark ............................................. 105
4.10 Costs ............................................................... 106
4.11 In-Lake Treatment Following Diversion ............................... 107
4.12 Summary ............................................................. 108
References ............................................................... 109

Chapter 5 Lake and Reservoir Protection From Non-Point Pollution ......... 113
5.1  Introduction ........................................................ 113
5.2  In-Stream Phosphorus Removal ........................................ 114
5.3  non-point Nutrient Source Controls: Introduction .................... 116
5.4  non-point Source Controls: Manure Management ........................ 119
5.5  non-point Nutrient Source Controls: Ponds and Wetlands .............. 122
     5.5.1 Introduction .................................................. 122
     5.5.2 Dry And Wet Extended Detention (ED) Ponds ..................... 122
     5.5.3 Constructed Wetlands .......................................... 124
5.6  Constructed Wetlands: Case Histories ................................ 127
5.7  Pre-Dams ............................................................ 130
5.8  Riparian Zone Rehabilitation: Introduction .......................... 131
5.9  Riparian Zone Rehabilitaton Methods ................................. 132
5.10 Reservoir Shoreline Rehabilitation .................................. 135
5.11 Lakeshore Rehabilitation ............................................ 137
5.12 Summary ............................................................. 140
References ............................................................... 140

Chapter 6 Dilution and Flushing .......................................... 149
6.1 Introduction ......................................................... 149
6.2 Theory and Predictions ............................................... 150
6.3 Case Studies ......................................................... 151
    6.3.1 Moses Lake ..................................................... 152
    6.3.2 Green Lake ..................................................... 158
    6.3.3 Lake Veluwe .................................................... 160
6.4 Summary: Effects, Applications, and Precautions ...................... 161
References ............................................................... 162

Chapter 7 Hypolimnetic Withdrawal ........................................ 165
7.1 Introduction ......................................................... 165
7.2 Test Cases ........................................................... 167
    7.2.1 General Trends ................................................. 167
    7.2.1 Specific Cases ................................................. 170
          7.2.1.1 Mauen See .............................................. 170
          7.2.1.2 Austrian Lakes ......................................... 170
          7.2.1.3 U.S. Lakes ............................................. 171
          7.2.1.4 Canada ................................................. 172
7.3 Costs ................................................................ 173
7.4 Adverse Effects ...................................................... 173
7.5 Summary .............................................................. 173
References ............................................................... 174

Chapter 8 Phosphorus Inactivation and Sediment Oxidation ................. 177
8.1 Introduction ......................................................... 177
8.2 Chemical Background .................................................. 178
    8.2.1 Aluminum ....................................................... 178
    8.2.2 Iron and Calcium ............................................... 180
8.3 Dose Determination and Application Techniques ........................ 182
    8.3.1 Aluminum ....................................................... 182
    8.3.2 Iron and Calcium ............................................... 191
    8.3.3 Application Techniques for Alum ................................ 191
8.4 Effectiveness and Longevity of P Inactivation ........................ 195
    8.4.1 Introduction ................................................... 195
    8.4.2 Stratified Lake Cases .......................................... 195
          8.4.2.1 Mirror and Shadow Lakes, Wisconsin (WI) ................ 200
          8.4.2.2 West Twin Lake (WTL), Ohio ............................. 201
          8.4.2.3 Kezar Lake, New Hampshire .............................. 203
          8.4.2.4 Lake Morey, Vermont .................................... 204
    8.4.3 Shallow, Unstratified Lake Cases ............................... 206
          8.4.3.1 Long Lake, Kitsap County, Washington ................... 208
          8.4.3.2 Campbell and Erie Lakes, Washington .................... 209
          8.4.3.3 Green Lake, Washington ................................. 210
    8.4.4 Reservoirs ..................................................... 211
    8.4.5 Ponds .......................................................... 211
    8.4.6 Iron Applications .............................................. 212
    8.4.7 Calcium Applications to Hardwater Lakes ........................ 213
8.5 Problems that Limit Effectiveness of P Inactivation .................. 215
8.6 Negative Aspects ..................................................... 216
8.7 Costs ................................................................ 224
8.8 Sediment Oxidation ................................................... 224
    8.8.1 Equipment and Application Rates ................................ 225
    8.8.2 Lake Response .................................................. 225
    8.8.3 Costs .......................................................... 228
    8.8.4 Prospectus ..................................................... 228
References ............................................................... 230

Chapter 9 Biomanipulation ................................................ 239
9.1 Introduction ......................................................... 239
9.2 Trophic Cascade ...................................................... 239
9.3 Basic Trophic Cascade Research ....................................... 243
9.4 Biomanipulation ...................................................... 244
9.5 Shallow Lakes ........................................................ 245
9.6 Biomanipulation: Shallow Lakes ....................................... 247
    9.6.1 Cockshoot Broad (UK) ........................................... 247
    9.6.2 Lake Zwemlust (and Other Dutch Lakes) .......................... 248
    9.6.3 Lake Vaeng (and other Danish Lakes) ............................ 250
    9.6.4 Lake Christina, Minnesota ...................................... 250
9.7 Biomanipulation: Deep Lakes .......................................... 252
    9.7.1 Lake Mendota, Wisconsin ........................................ 252
    9.7.2 Bautzen Reservoir And Grafenheim Experimental Lakes
          (Germany) ...................................................... 253
9.8 Costs ................................................................ 255
9.9 Summary and Conclusions .............................................. 255
References ............................................................... 256

Chapter 10 Copper Sulfate ................................................ 263
10.1 Introduction ........................................................ 263
10.2 Principle of Copper Sulfate Applications ............................ 263
10.3 Application Guidelines .............................................. 265
10.4 Effectiveness of Copper Sulfate ..................................... 266
10.5 Negative Effects of Copper Sulfate .................................. 267
10.6 Costs of Copper Sulfate ............................................. 269
References ............................................................... 270


SECTION III  Macrophyte Biomass Control

Chapter 11 Macrophyte Ecology and Lake Management ........................ 275
11.1 Introduction ........................................................ 275
11.2 Planning and Monitoring for Aquatic Plant Management ................ 275
     11.2.1 Case Study: White River Lake Aquatic Plant Management
            Plan ......................................................... 276
11.3 Species and Life-Form Considerations ................................ 280
11.4 Aquatic Plant Growth and Productivity ............................... 281
     11.4.1 Light ........................................................ 281
     11.4.2 Nutrients .................................................... 282
     11.4.3 Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC), pH, and Oxygen (O2) ........ 283
     11.4.4 Substrate .................................................... 284
     11.4.5 Temperature .................................................. 284
11.5 Plant Distribution within Lakes ..................................... 285
11.6 Resource Allocation and Phenology ................................... 285
11.7 Reproduction and Survival Strategies ................................ 286
11.8 Relationships with Other Organisms .................................. 287
11.9 The Effects of Macrophytes on Their Environment ..................... 289
References ............................................................... 291

Chapter 12 Plant Community Restoration ................................... 295
12.1 Introduction ........................................................ 295
12.2 The "Do Nothing" Approach ........................................... 296
     12.2.1 Case history: Lake Wingra, "Doing Nothing" ................... 297
12.3 The Habitat Alteration Approach ..................................... 298
     12.3.1 Case History: No-Motor, Slow-No-Wake Regulations ............. 299
            12.3.1.1 Long and Big Green Lakes: Heavily Used
                     Recreational Lakes in Southeastern Wisconsin ........ 299
            12.3.1.2 Active Habitat Manipulation: Engineering and
                     Biomanipulation Case Studies ........................ 300
12.4 Aquascaping ......................................................... 307
12.5 The Founder Colony: A Reasonable Restoration Approach ............... 315
     12.5.1 Case Studies ................................................. 316
            12.5.1.1 Founder Colonies in North Lake, Lake
                     Lewisville, and Lake Conroe, Texas and
                     Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama ..................... 316
            12.5.1.2 Cootes Paradise Marsh: Volunteers in Action ......... 317
            12.5.1.3 Rice Lake at Milltown, Wisconsin: Lessons
                     Learned ............................................. 317
12.6 Concluding Thoughts ................................................. 321
References ............................................................... 321

Chapter 13 Water Level Drawdown .......................................... 325
13.1 Introduction ........................................................ 325
13.2 Methods ............................................................. 325
13.3 Positive and Negative Factors of Water Level Drawdown ............... 330
13.4 Case Studies ........................................................ 332
     13.4.1 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Reservoirs .................. 332
     13.4.2 Louisiana Reservoirs ......................................... 333
     13.4.3 Florida ...................................................... 333
     13.4.4 Wisconsin .................................................... 334
     13.4.5 Connecticut .................................................. 337
     13.4.6 Oregon ....................................................... 337
13.5 Fish Management with Water Level Drawdown ........................... 337
13.6 Case Histories ...................................................... 337
13.7 Summary ............................................................. 339
References ............................................................... 339

Chapter 14 Preventive, Manual, and Mechanical Methods .................... 343
14.1 Introduction ........................................................ 343
14.2 Preventive Approaches ............................................... 343
     14.2.1  The Probabilities of Invasion ............................... 344
     14.2.2  Education, Enforcement, and Monitoring as Preventive
             Approaches .................................................. 346
     14.2.3  Barriers and Sanitation ..................................... 346
14.3 Manual Methods and Soft Technologies ................................ 348
14.4 Mechanical Methods .................................................. 349
     14.4.1  The Materials Handling Problem .............................. 349
     14.4.2  Machinery and Equipment ..................................... 350
     14.4.3  Cutting ..................................................... 352
             14.4.3.1 Case Study: Water chestnut (Trapa natans)
                      Management in New York, Maryland, and
                      Vermont ............................................ 352
             14.4.3.2 Case Study: Pre-Emptive Cutting to Manage
                      Curly-Leaf Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus)
                      in Minnesota ....................................... 353
             14.4.3.3 Case Study: Deep Cutting, Fish Lake,
                      Wisconsin .......................................... 353
             14.4.3.4 Case Study: Cutting the Emergents, Cattails
                      (Typha spp.) and Reeds (Phragmites spp.) ........... 355
     14.4.4  Harvesting .................................................. 355
             14.4.4.1 Efficacy, Regrowth, and Change in Community
                      Structure .......................................... 355
             14.4.4.2 The Nutrient Removal Question ...................... 358
             14.4.4.3 Environmental Effects .............................. 362
             14.4.4.4 Operational Challenges ............................. 365
     14.4.5  Shredding and Crushing ...................................... 365
     14.4.6  Diver-Operated Suction Dredges .............................. 366
     14.4.7  Hydraulic Washing ........................................... 367
     14.4.8  Weed Rollers: Automated, Untended Aquatic Plant
             Control Devices ............................................. 367
     14.4.9  Mechanical Derooting ........................................ 368
     14.4.10 Costs and Productivity ...................................... 369
14.5 Concluding Remarks .................................................. 374
References ............................................................... 375

Chapter 15 Sediment Covers and Surface Shading for Macrophyte
           Control ....................................................... 381
15.1 Introduction ........................................................ 381
15.2 Comparison of Synthetic Sediment Covers ............................. 381
     15.2.1 Polyethylene ................................................. 381
     15.2.2 Polypropylene ................................................ 382
     15.2.3 Aquascreen ................................................... 383
     15.2.4 Burlap ....................................................... 383
15.3 Application Procedures for Sediment Covers .......................... 384
15.4 Shading of Macrophytes with Surface Covers .......................... 384
References ............................................................... 385

Chapter 16 Chemical Controls ............................................. 387
16.1 Introduction ........................................................ 387
16.2 Effective Concentration - Dose, Time Considerations, Active
     Ingredients, Site-Specific Factors, and Herbicide
     Formulation ......................................................... 387
16.3 Types of Chemicals .................................................. 388
     16.3.1 Contact vs. Systemic ......................................... 389
     16.3.2 Broad-spectrum vs. Selective Herbicides ...................... 390
     16.3.3 Persistent vs. Non-Persistent ................................ 390
     16.3.4 Tank Mixes ................................................... 390
     16.3.5 Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) ............................... 390
     16.3.6 Adjuvants .................................................... 391
16.4 Increasing Herbicide Selectivity .................................... 391
16.5 Environmental Impacts, Safety and Health Considerations ............. 393
     16.5.1 Herbicide Fate in the Environment ............................ 393
     16.5.2 Toxic Effects ................................................ 394
           16.5.2.1 Direct Effects ....................................... 395
           16.5.2.2 Indirect Impacts ..................................... 397
           16.5.2.3 What Should a Lake Manager or Concerned
                    Citizen Do? .......................................... 399
16.6 Ways of Minimizing Environmental Risks .............................. 399
16.7 Case Studies ........................................................ 401
     16.7.1 Plant Management with Fluridone in the Northern United
            States ....................................................... 401
            16.7.1.1 Minnesota Experiences ............................... 401
            16.7.1.2 Wisconsin Experiences - Potters and Random
                     Lakes ............................................... 404
            16.7.1.3 Michigan Experiences ................................ 406
            16.7.1.4 Vermont Experiences - Lake Hortonia and Burr
                     Pond ................................................ 409
            16.7.1.5 Increasers and Decreasers ........................... 412
     16.7.2 2,4-D in Cayuga Lake, New York and Loon Lake,
            Washington State ............................................. 412
            16.7.2.1 Cayuga Lake ......................................... 412
            16.7.2.2 Loon Lake ........................................... 414
     16.7.3 Triclopyr in Pend Oreille River, Washington State and
            Lake Minnetonka, Minnesota ................................... 415
            16.7.3.1 Pend Oreille River .................................. 415
            16.7.3.2 Lake Minnetonka ..................................... 417
16.8 Costs ............................................................... 418
16.9 Concluding Remarks .................................................. 418
References ............................................................... 420

Chapter 17 Phytophagous Insects, Fish, and Other Biological
            Controls ..................................................... 425
17.1 Introduction ........................................................ 425
17.2 Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) .................................... 426
17.3 Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) ............................... 427
17.4 Alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) ......................... 429
17.5 Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) ....................... 430
17.6 Grass Carp .......................................................... 433
     17.6.1 History and Restrictions ..................................... 433
     17.6.2 Biology of Grass Carp ........................................ 434
     17.6.3 Reproduction of Grass Carp ................................... 435
     17.6.4 Stocking Rates ............................................... 438
     17.6.5 Case Histories ............................................... 440
            17.6.5.1 Deer Point Lake, Florida ............................ 440
            17.6.5.2 Lake Conway, Florida ................................ 442
            17.6.5.3 Lake Conroe, Texas .................................. 442
            17.6.5.4 Smaller Lakes and Ponds ............................. 443
     17.6.6 Water Quality Changes ........................................ 443
17.7 Other Phytophagous Fish ............................................. 445
17.8 Developing Areas of Macrophyte and Algae Management ................. 446
     17.8.1 Fungal Pathogens ............................................. 446
     17.8.2 Water hyacinth ............................................... 446
     17.8.3 Hydrilla ..................................................... 447
     17.8.4 Eurasian Watermilfoil ........................................ 447
     17.8.5 Allelopathic Substances ...................................... 447
     17.8.6 Plant Growth Regulators ...................................... 448
     17.8.7 Barley Straw ................................................. 448
     17.8.8 Reducing Algae Growth with Bacteria .......................... 448
     17.8.9 Viruses for Blue-Green Algae Management ...................... 449
References ............................................................... 449


SECTION IV  Multiple Benefit Treatments

Chapter 18 Hypolimnetic Aeration and Oxygenation ......................... 459
18.1 Introduction ........................................................ 459
18.2 Description and Operation of Units .................................. 459
18.3 Unit Sizing ......................................................... 464
18.4 Beneficial Effects and Limitations .................................. 465
18.5 Undesirable Effects ................................................. 470
18.6 Costs ............................................................... 470
18.7 Summary ............................................................. 470
References ............................................................... 471

Chapter 19 Artificial Circulation ........................................ 475
19.1 Introduction ........................................................ 475
19.2 Devices and Air Quantities .......................................... 475
19.3 Theoretical Effects of Circulation .................................. 483
     19.3.1 Dissolved Oxygen (DO) ........................................ 483
     19.3.2 Nutrients .................................................... 483
     19.3.3 Physical Control of Phytoplankton Biomass .................... 484
     19.3.4 Effects on Phytoplankton Composition ......................... 488
19.4 Effects of Circulation on Trophic Indicators ........................ 490
19.5 Undesirable Effects ................................................. 494
19.6 Costs ............................................................... 494
19.7 Summary and Recommendations ......................................... 496
References ............................................................... 496

Chapter 20 Sediment Removal .............................................. 503
20.1 Introduction ........................................................ 503
20.2 Objectives of Sediment Removal ...................................... 503
     20.2.1 Deepening .................................................... 503
     20.2.2 Nutrient Control ............................................. 503
     20.2.3 Toxic Substances Removal ..................................... 504
     20.2.4 Rooted Macrophyte Control .................................... 504
20.3 Environmental Concerns .............................................. 505
     20.3.1 In-Lake Concerns ............................................. 505
     20.3.2 Disposal Area Concerns ....................................... 506
20.4 Sediment Removal Depth .............................................. 507
20.5 Sediment Removal Techniques ......................................... 508
     20.5.1 Mechanical Dredges ........................................... 509
     20.5.2 Hydraulic Dredges ............................................ 509
     20.5.3 Special-Purpose Dredges ...................................... 513
     20.5.4 Pneumatic Dredges ............................................ 514
20.6 Suitable Lake Conditions ............................................ 514
20.7 Dredge Selection and Disposal Area Design ........................... 516
     20.7.1 Dredge Selection ............................................. 517
            20.7.1.1 Plan to Optimize the Available Disposal Area ........ 517
            20.7.1.2 Analyze the Production Capacity of Available
                     Dredging Equipment .................................. 518
            20.7.1.3 Compute Dredging Days Required to Complete
                     the Job ............................................. 520
            20.7.1.4 Determine the Required Head Discharge
                     Characteristics of the Main Pump When Pumping
                     Material with the Specific Gravity of Lake
                     Sediment (Approximately 1.20) ....................... 520
            20.7.1.5 Determine Minimum Head Conditions When
                     Pumping to the Nearest Disposal Area ................ 528
            20.7.1.6 Analyze Booster Pump Requirements for Pumping
                     to Distances Beyond the Capacity of the Main
                     Pump ................................................ 529
     20.7.2 Disposal Area Design ......................................... 535
            20.7.2.1 Flocculent Settling Procedure ....................... 535
            20.7.2.2 Zone/Compression Settling Test Procedure ............ 536
            20.7.2.3 Design Procedures ................................... 537
20.8 Case Studies ........................................................ 543
     20.8.1 Lake Trainmen, Sweden ........................................ 544
     20.8.2 Lilly Lake, Wisconsin ........................................ 548
            20.8.2.1 Initial Diagnosis and Results ....................... 548
            20.8.2.2 Long-Term Effects ................................... 550
            20.8.2.3 Other WDNR Dredging Experiences ..................... 553
     20.8.3 Lake Springfield, Illinois ................................... 554
            20.8.3.1 Sediment Removal Guidelines ......................... 555
            20.8.3.2 Sediment Removal Techniques and Disposal Site
                     Selection ........................................... 556
            20.8.3.3 Permits ............................................. 557
            20.8.3.4 Disposal Site ....................................... 558
            20.8.3.5 Sediment Removal .................................... 558
     20.8.4 Lake Jarnsjon, Sweden ........................................ 559
20.9 Costs ............................................................... 562
20.10 Summary ............................................................ 567
References ............................................................... 567

Index .................................................................... 575


Вверх Restoration and management of lakes and reservoirs / Cooke G.D., Welch E.B., Peterson S.A., Nichols S.A. - 3rd ed. - Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, 2005. - 591 p. - ISBN 1-56670-625-4.

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