Lee S. Environmental technology handbook
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Lee S. Environmental technology handbook / Lee S., Speight J.G. - 2nd ed. - New York: Taylor & Francis, 2000. - 333 p. - (Applied energy technology series). - ISBN 1-56032-892-4.
 
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      Preface to the Second Edition ............................... xi
      Preface to the First Edition .............................. xiii

Part One
DEFINITIONS AND RESOURCES

Chapter 1
HISTORY, DEFINITIONS, AND TERMINOLOGY .............................. 1
1.1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................. 1
1.2.0 HISTORICAL ASPECTS ........................................... 3
1.3.0 DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY .................................. 8
      1.3.1 The Atmosphere ........................................ 13
      1.3.2 Water Systems ......................................... 16
      1.3.3 Land Systems .......................................... 16
1.4.0 ECOLOGICAL CYCLES ........................................... 18
1.5.0 SUMMARY ..................................................... 22
1.6.0 PROBLEMS .................................................... 22
1.7.0 REFERENCES .................................................. 25

Chapter 2
RESOURCES AND RESOURCE UTILIZATION ................................ 29
2.1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................ 29
2.2.0 FOSSIL FUEL RESOURCES ....................................... 36
      2.2.1 Coal .................................................. 37
      2.2.2 Petroleum ............................................. 39
      2.2.3 Natural Gas ........................................... 40
2.3.0 OTHER ENERGY RESOURCES ...................................... 43
2.4.0 MINERAL RESOURCES ........................................... 44
2.5.0 RESOURCE UTILIZATION ........................................ 48
2.6.0 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS ....................................... 50
2.7.0 SUMMARY ..................................................... 59
2.8.0 PROBLEMS .................................................... 60
2.9.0 REFERENCES .................................................. 64

Part II
ECOSYSTEMS

Chapter 3
LAND SYSTEMS ...................................................... 73
3.1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................ 73
3.2.0 MINERALS .................................................... 74
3.3.0 SEDIMENTARY STRATA .......................................... 77
3.4.0 CLAYS ....................................................... 78
3.5.0 SOIL ........................................................ 80
      3.5.1 Inorganic Matter ...................................... 83
      3.5.2 Organic Matter ........................................ 83
      3.5.3 Nutrients ............................................. 85
      3.5.4 Water ................................................. 88
3.6.0 SUMMARY ..................................................... 89
3.7.0 PROBLEMS .................................................... 90
3.8.0 REFERENCES .................................................. 91

Chapter 4
WATER SYSTEMS ..................................................... 93
4.1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................ 93
4.2.0 PROPERTIES ................................................. 100
      4.2.1 Gases ................................................ 104
      4.2.2 Acidity and Alkalinity ............................... 106
      4.2.3 Chemical Species ..................................... 107
4.3.0 AQUATIC ORGANISMS .......................................... 109
      4.3.1 Algae ................................................ 109
      4.3.2 Bacteria ............................................. 110
      4.3.3 Fungi ................................................ 110
      4.3.4 General Effects ...................................... 111
4.4.0 BIODEGRADATION PROCESSES ................................... 112
4.5.0 SUMMARY .................................................... 114
4.6.0 PROBLEMS ................................................... 114
4.7.0 REFERENCES ................................................. 116

Chapter 5
THE ATMOSPHERE ................................................... 119
5.1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................... 119
5.2.0 COMPOSITION AND CHARACTER .................................. 120
      5.2.1 Structure ............................................ 121
      5.2.2 Oxygen/Ozone ......................................... 123
      5.2.3 Nitrogen ............................................. 129
      5.2.4 Other Gases .......................................... 129
      5.2.5 Particulate Matter ................................... 131
5.3.0 DISPERSION EFFECTS ......................................... 132
5.4.0 SUMMARY .................................................... 134
5.5.0 PROBLEMS ................................................... 134
5.6.0 REFERENCES ................................................. 136

Part III
CHEMICAL WASTE AND WASTE MANAGEMENT

Chapter 6
CHEMICAL WASTE ................................................... 141
6.1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................... 141
6.2.0 CLASSIFICATION ............................................. 143
      6.2.1 Hazardous Waste ...................................... 144
            6.2.1.2 Corrosive Materials .......................... 148
            6.2.1.3 Reactive Materials ........................... 149
            6.2.1.4 Toxic Materials .............................. 150
            6.2.1.5 Radioactive Materials ........................ 156
            6.2.1.6 Other Classifications ........................ 158
      6.2.2 Nonhazardous Waste ................................... 160
6.3.0 SUMMARY .................................................... 161
6.4.0 PROBLEMS ................................................... 161
6.5.0 REFERENCES ................................................. 163

Chapter 7
CHEMICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT AND BIODEGRADATION OF WASTE ............ 167
7.1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................... 167
7.2.0 CHEMICAL METHODS ........................................... 174
      7.2.1 Neutralization ....................................... 174
      7.2.2 Precipitation ........................................ 175
      7.2.3 Ion exchange ......................................... 176
      7.2.4 Oxidation-reduction .................................. 176
      7.2.5 Extraction and Leaching .............................. 177
7.3.0 BIOREMEDIATION ............................................. 178
      7.3.1 Solid Phase Bioremediation ........................... 183
      7.3.2 Soil Heaping ......................................... 184
      7.3.3 Composting ........................................... 184
      7.3.4 In Situ Bioremediation ............................... 184
7.4.0 SUMMARY .................................................... 185
7.5.0 PROBLEMS ................................................... 185
7.6.0 REFERENCES ................................................. 186

Chapter 8
PHYSICAL AND THERMAL METHODS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT ................. 189
8.1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................... 189
8.2.0 PHYSICAL METHODS ........................................... 190
      8.2.1 Phase Separation ..................................... 191
      8.2.2 Phase Transfer ....................................... 192
      8.2.3 Phase Transition ..................................... 195
      8.2.4 Phase Conversion ..................................... 197
      8.2.5 Membrane Separations ................................. 198
8.3.0 THERMAL METHODS ............................................ 201
      8.3.1 Incineration ......................................... 202
      8.3.2 Thermal Desorption ................................... 206
      8.3.3 Pyrolysis ............................................ 206
8.4.0 SOLIDIFICATION AND STABILIZATION ........................... 207
8.5.0 SUMMARY .................................................... 208
8.6.0 PROBLEMS ................................................... 208
8.7.0 REFERENCES ................................................. 209

Chapter 9
WASTE RECYCLING AND DISPOSAL ..................................... 213
9.1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................... 213
9.2.0 WASTE RECYCLING ............................................ 213
9.3.0 WASTE DISPOSAL ............................................. 216
      9.3.1 Surface Disposal ..................................... 217
      9.3.2 Underground Disposal ................................. 219
      9.3.3 In-situ Disposal ..................................... 220
9.4.0 ABANDONED DISPOSAL SITES ................................... 222
9.5.0 RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT ............................... 222
9.6.0 SUMMARY .................................................... 225
9.7.0 PROBLEMS ................................................... 225
9.8.0 REFERENCES ................................................. 226

Chapter 10
SOURCES AND EFFECTS OF GASEOUS EMISSIONS ......................... 229
10.1.0 INTRODUCTION .............................................. 229
10.2.0 FOSSIL FUEL SOURCES ....................................... 232
       10.2.1 Coal ............................................... 234
       10.2.2 Petroleum .......................................... 240
       10.2.3 Natural Gas ........................................ 243
10.3.0 OTHER SOURCES ............................................. 244
       10.3.1 Industrial Stationary Emission Sources ............. 244
       10.3.2 Non-Industrial Stationary Emission Sources ......... 244
       10.3.3 Mobile Emission Sources ............................ 245
10.4.0 EFFECTS ................................................... 245
       10.4.1 Acid Rain .......................................... 246
       10.4.2 The Greenhouse Effect .............................. 249
       10.4.3 Smog ............................................... 252
10.5.0 SUMMARY ................................................... 253
10.6.0 PROBLEMS .................................................. 254
10.7.0 REFERENCES ................................................ 255

Chapter 11
CONTROL OF GASEOUS EMISSIONS ..................................... 259
11.1.0 INTRODUCTION .............................................. 259
11.2.0 METHODS ................................................... 261
       11.2.1 Stationary Sources ................................. 262
       11.2.2 Mobile Sources ..................................... 262
11.3.0 EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES ............................. 265
       11.3.1 Integrated Technologies ............................ 265
       11.3.2 Add-on Technologies ................................ 267
11.4.0 SUMMARY ................................................... 277
11.5.0 PROBLEMS .................................................. 278
11.6.0 REFERENCES ................................................ 279

Part IV
REGULATIONS AND THE FUTURE

Chapter 12
ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS ........................................ 285
12.1.0 INTRODUCTION .............................................. 285
12.2.0 LEGISLATION ............................................... 286
       12.2.1  The Clean Air Act Amendments ...................... 286
       12.2.2  The Water Pollution Control Act
               (The Clean Water Act) ............................. 288
       12.2.3  Safe Drinking Water Act ........................... 289
       12.2.4  The Resource Conservation and
               Recovery Act (RCRA) ............................... 290
       12.2.5  The Toxic Substances Control Act .................. 291
       12.2.6  The Comprehensive Environmental Response,
               Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) .......... 292
       12.2.7  The Occupational Safety and Health Act ............ 293
       12.2.8  The National Environmental Policy Act ............. 293
       12.2.9  The Oil Pollution Act ............................. 294
       12.2.10 The Atomic Energy Act and
               Other Nuclear Waste Statutes ...................... 294
       12.2.11 The Hazardous Materials Transportation Act ........ 295
12.3.0 GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE ............................... 295
12.4.0 SUMMARY ................................................... 298
12.5.0 PROBLEMS .................................................. 298
12.6.0 REFERENCES ................................................ 299

EPILOGUE ......................................................... 301
GLOSSARY ......................................................... 305
INDEX ............................................................ 323


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